Management of any organization seeks to determineeffective ways to achieve goals through the efficient allocation of resources. To do this, action plans are drawn up, large-scale studies of the micro- and macroenvironment of the organization are conducted. One of the most important elements of the effective work of the entire organization and the achievement of its assigned tasks is strategic management.
To define the notion of strategic managementyou must first determine the essence of the strategy. A single definition of the concept of strategy does not exist. The strategy is used in game theory as a plan that indicates possible player moves in each particular situation. In the context of strategic management, it means an integrated plan for the effective achievement of the organization's goals.
Strategic management as an academicdiscipline began to form after the publication of the book "Strategy, Structure and Results" by R. Rumelt. It includes complex management processes, so there is no unambiguous approach to either defining this type of management or its main tasks. With its help, managers set long-term goals for the development of the organization, identify specific and short-term goals, and offer strategies to achieve them, depending on the micro- and macro-environment of the organization. On the other hand, strategic management can be viewed as a process of assessing the macro environment, the results of which allow making the necessary decisions within the organization, and exercising control.
Foreign theorists recognize this speciesmanagement type of management, which relies on human potential, which is the basis of any organization. He orientates the organization's activities to meet the needs of consumers, is able to respond flexibly to any change in the organization, which allows achieving competitive advantages. Thus, thanks to strategic management, the organization is able to achieve the set tasks in the long term. This kind of management develops in a variety of spheres of economic relations and production.
Strategic management in tourism allowsonly to develop a travel company faster, but also ensures success in this highly competitive area. Such companies are guided by certain strategic methods, which include the development of the company and its product in accordance with established traditions, the expansion of the geography of the services provided and the introduction of counter forms of tourism. Planning activities based on strategic management allows you to determine the optimal strategy or combination of several strategies to achieve the company's leading position in the tourism industry.
Strategic management in constructionallows to identify the prospects for the development of production forces in the region, the peculiarities of the infrastructure of the region and its natural and climatic conditions, to analyze the demographic situation and the status of the capacities of the most important enterprises-competitors. A deep analysis of the external environment, along with internal analysis, allows us to develop strategies for the development of the enterprise, the technologies for its promotion and advertising. But regardless of the field of economic activity of the organization, the strategic planning system allows that the future does not necessarily need to be better for some indicators than the past. That is why the central place is given to the analysis of prospects, of all possible dangers and threats both from the external environment and from changes in the internal environment. It is complemented by an analysis of the positions of competitors in the industry. Only such an approach can make it possible to receive not just a normal profit, but an income.
Thus, the strategic management system allows not only to identify all the competitive advantages, but also to use them effectively to achieve the set goals.