Meat and canned fish are differentlong period of storage. Their nutritional value is high enough. These products are convenient to transport. There are special factories in the country producing them for a wide range of consumers. However, many prefer to make homemade canned meat. Depending on the content, the products manufactured in the factories can be stored for up to 3-5 years without significant changes.
Production of canned meat
Various products are used for manufacturing.In particular, the production is carried out from all types of meat, fat, offal, finished products, various raw materials of plant origin. In the manufacture of spices, blood of animals are also used. Meat canned food is placed in different containers. This can be a container of tin or glass, aluminum or polymers. In industry, a special unit of measurement is used. It is necessary for counting the volume in which canned meat is produced (stewed). GOST sets the parameters for this unit. A conditional bank is accepted as the bank. It is a cylindrical tin can. Its volume is 353 cm3, diameter - 102.3 mm, height - 52.8 mm. When translating physical cans into conditional coefficients are used.
Canned meat products are on the market in largediversity. The products are classified primarily by the raw materials used in the manufacture. So, there are canned food from meat products, poultry and cattle, bacon, legumes, and others. Depending on the purpose, products are distinguished:
- Used after treatment.
- Snack bars.
The industry also produces baby canned meat. These products are subject to special requirements.
Canned meat is made from raw, roastedor boiled raw materials. At manufacturing are used: fat, salt, pepper, a bay leaf. The most common canned meat - beef stew, pork, lamb. The salt content in such products is 1.5%. The share of fat and meat is about 55%. These products are usually used in cooking second and first courses. Canned food from offal is a different kind of pate ("Hepatic", "Special", "Nevsky"), fried kidneys, liver, brain, tongue in jelly, heart and so on. They are consumed mainly for breakfast or as snacks in a cold form. Products made from meat products are made from sausage meat ("Separate", "Amateur", "Pork", "Sausage", etc.).
These include products from smoked bacon andbacon. They are cut into small slices and pasteurized at a temperature of 75 degrees. They also produce canned meat from bird meat in its own juice, from sausages in tomato, fat and broth, creams from chopped ham. In addition, the cans may be present in the cans. Cereals can vary in raw materials: meatballs, meat and vegetable, meat and macaroni and others. They are used in cooking the second and first courses. These products are ready for use after heat treatment.
A wide range of dietary andchildren's canned food. So, for semiannual babies homogenized products are produced. For children 7-9 months, they make puree-like canned food, 9-12 months. - coarsely ground. As the main raw material for the production of products are: bird, tongue, liver, veal. Beef is also used. Among the most popular products can be called such as "Fairy Tale", "Baby", "Health".
Canned meat should matchestablished standards and sanitary standards. The quality of products is determined in the course of organoleptic research, physico-chemical, and in some cases (if necessary) bacteriological analysis. In addition, special attention is paid to the checking of the structure of the container. Examine the canned meat, check the condition of the paste, the content of the label, the presence / absence of defects, rusty stains on the packaging, marking, the amount of fluxes of solder. On the inner surface of the containers during the sterilization may appear areas of blue. On glass containers, a dark coating can be found from sulfur dioxide. It is harmless to humans, but significantly spoils the appearance of the product.
Organoleptically, canned meat is tested inwarm or cold. Experts assess the taste, appearance, smell, consistency of contents. If there is a broth in the container, check its transparency and color. Assessing the appearance, attention is paid to the number and size of pieces, the peculiarities of their placement. Physico-chemical analysis of products involves the determination of fat and muscle tissue, common salt and nitrite, broth, copper, tin and lead. The maximum allowable concentrations are set by standards for each type of canned food. Depending on the quality and type of raw materials, as well as organoleptic indicators, one or two varieties are produced. To the first, for example, include canned meat from roasted meat, boiled beef. One grade is produced and spicy pork. Stewed lamb and beef are made of high or first class. For them, raw materials, respectively, of the 1st or 2nd category of fatness are used.
How do they label canned meat?
GOST establishes a strict order, incompliance with which obligatory information is put on banks. Labeling is present on the covers of the tanks. The application of information is carried out in relief or with the use of indelible paint. On the lids of non-lithographed cans, the information is given in the following order:
- The number and month of production are 2 digits each.
- Year of manufacture - 2 last digits.
- The shift number.
- Assortment number (1-3 figures). If the canned meat of the highest grade is marked, the letter "B" is added here.
One or two letters denote also the index of the system to which the manufacturer belongs. It can be:
- A - meat industry.
- K - fruit and vegetable farming.
- KP - food industry.
- CA - consumer cooperation.
- LH - forestry.
- MS - agricultural production.
The plant number is indicated by 1-3 digits. The marking is placed in two or three rows, depending on the diameter of the cover. Information can be indicated only on the lid or on it and on the bottom (from the outside). On children's canned food should be written "Approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation."
Canned meat should be kept inVentilated room with minimal temperature fluctuations. Relative humidity should be maintained at 75%. At the same time, the air temperature should be within the range of 0-5 degrees. Negatively affects the safety of production by a lowered t (below zero). At a temperature above 5 degrees, tin begins to flow into the contents of the container. This can reduce the length of the storage period.
It has a significant impact on the statecontents of cans. Sterilization causes the formation of stable protein bonds. This, in turn, reduces the digestibility of canned food by about 20%. In addition, some amino acids and vitamins (threonine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine) are lost during sterilization. Such an amino acid, like lysine, will be worse absorbed after pasteurization at a temperature of 70 degrees. Partially decompose extractive, especially nitrogen-containing substances.
When sterilized, creatine is destroyed by 30%which is involved in the formation of taste. When it breaks down, uric acid and sarcosine form. Some vitamins lose their activity, and ascorbic acid is completely destroyed. Partially decompose B-group vitamins. So, B is destroyed by 80%, and B2 - by 75%. Vitamins D and A break down into 40%, gzitamin H - by 60%. The liberated sulfhydryl groups form hydrogen sulphide in the presence of oxygen. This causes the sulfide walls of the container. In addition, the iron ions present in the product form black ferrous sulphite.
Features of the content
The most stable at storage are consideredcanned meat stew. Products from ham and sausages are kept at a temperature of no more than 5 degrees. The duration of storage of canned foods in which vegetable oils are present is less prolonged. Over time, corrosion begins on the inside of the tin can. In them, a significant increase in the content of tin is observed after 3-4 months. When freezing canned food during storage, leakage of containers may be impaired, and varnish on the tin surface may break up. In addition, low temperatures adversely affect the appearance and consistency of the contents.
Preparation for implementation
After the manufacture and release of canned goods fromrefrigerator in the summer season they must be placed in the chambers with a temperature of 10 to 12 degrees. To prevent moisture and the subsequent appearance of rust on the banks, the ventilation should be strengthened. After manufacturing, canned food should be kept for 3 months. During this period, there is an equalization of organoleptic parameters. This process consists of a uniform distribution of spices, table salt, fat and other components, as well as in the exchange of compounds between dense and liquid masses.
During storage, swelling may occurcans - bombing. It can be microbiological, physical or chemical. In this case, damage to canned food can take place without any external signs. Causes in such cases can be: souring of contents, accumulation of salts of heavy metals. In storehouses store canned food is carried out until the end of the prescribed shelf life. It is indicated in the technical / regulatory documentation or in the supply contract.