Temechko a newborn is also called a fontanel. It is a soft patch on the baby's head, which is covered only with skin and a special membrane. Over time, the fontanel begins to tighten and completely hardens. Soft theme helps the child to easily appear, and also performs other functions.
What is the theme of the child and what does it consist of?
Usually the fontanel in the baby takes the form of a rhombus. When he feels it, Mom can feel a slight pulse, but this is absolutely normal.
Where is the theme of the newborn located? Usually it can be felt just above or below the height of the surrounding bones. Its normal size does not exceed 3x3 cm, but it can be much less. Everything depends on the nutrition of the mother during pregnancy and heredity. The more calcium in the diet of a pregnant woman, the smaller the size of the temples will be for the baby. But also to abuse calcium it is not necessary, after all at a plenty of such products the fontanel can completely be tightened already in a womb, and the kid during labor will receive a trauma of a skull.
The human skull consists of three bone plates,which grow rapidly after birth. Between them is the theme of the newborn. His photo can be provided by a pediatrician. First, the baby has a large and soft distance between the bones, but later the plates grow, and the fontanel is completely tightened.
Why do we need a fontanel?
Nature does not create anything just like that. First of all, a fontanel or a thread in a newborn helps the head to adjust during the exit from the birth canal. This is confirmed by the fact that the child appears light with a slightly oblate and elongated shape of the skull.
In addition, the soft fontanel protects the baby inthe first year of life from craniocerebral injuries, and the risk of falling in a newborn is especially high. During the impact, the head seems to adjust and absorb the shock.
Also, without a soft fontanel, the baby's brain could not grow at the right speed. The mobility of the bones allows the head to expand and not create obstacles to the brain.
When does the closing process occur?
It should be recalled that the normal size of the fontanelis considered up to 3x3 cm. A small theme in a newborn is considered if its size does not exceed 0.5x0.5 cm. Parents should not be afraid if in the first days of life they found that the soft crown slightly increased in size. This is necessary for the head to take the final and correct form. In the future, this distance will only decrease.
No pediatrician can accurately say, throughhow long the theme will be completely closed. It depends on many factors, including heredity. However, in modern medicine there are also approximate figures, which are considered to be the norm.
In most children, the closure of the fontanelle occurs in the first two years of life, in half of the newborns in the first year. There are also babies, in whom the temchatchko hardens only three months after birth.
It should be noted that the closure of the fontanel also depends on the sex of the child. And this is a medically proven fact. So, the boys harden temechko much faster than girls.
Later, overgrowth and large dimensions of the newborn's crown
Physicians can accurately say what size shouldbe a topic for a newborn. When the fontanelle overgrows, it is also known, therefore any deviation from the norm is considered a potential danger. Similar deviations can speak about various congenital diseases.
A large topic and its later overgrowth may indicate:
- Rickets. Such an ailment is usually manifested in premature infants or in children with a deficiency of vitamin D. Newborns with rickets usually suffer from a flat occiput. With this symptom, it is recommended to consult the pediatrician immediately for advice.
- Hypothyroidism. Infants sometimes have congenital dysfunction of thyroid. The hypothyroid patient is very sluggish, sleeps a lot, poorly eats and suffers from a disturbance of the excretory system. If the baby showed a similar symptomatology, it is recommended to donate blood to the thyroid hormones.
- Achondrodysplasia. This is a rare pathology, which manifests itself in the violation of the growth of the baby, shortening of the limbs, broad head. Unfortunately, this is a congenital ailment that does not respond to any treatment.
- Down Syndrome. It's no secret that such a pathology manifests itself in the development of the baby. Also, the child has a short neck, a bad facial expression. In modern medicine Down's syndrome is put immediately after birth, but there are also mild forms that appear only with time.
- Other bone diseases and skeletal development.
Quick closure of the fontanel and its small size
When the theme is healed in newborns quickly andit is small in size, this also indicates certain disorders in the body. Despite this, the rapid overgrowing and small size are less common.
- Craniosynostosis. Disease, which is characterized by a small circle of the head and high pressure in the skull. At the same time, strabismus, low hearing and late growth are noted. Craniosynostosis is successfully treated with an operative method.
- Also small size fontanel and its earlyclosure is noted and with anomalies in the development of the brain. In order to deliver such a serious diagnosis, a neuropediatrician is required. The outcome depends primarily on the specific diagnosis, as well as on the severity of the pathology.
It is important to remember that any deviation from the norm requires early examination and treatment.
The hollow thread of the baby
Sometimes mothers notice the sunken theme of the newborn when it overgrows. Photos of such fontanel can be found in the specialized literature.
A similar problem does sometimes appearin babies, but it does not pose a serious danger to the body. The hollow crown of the mammy can cure itself, because the problem, most likely, lies in the dehydration of the body.
In order to normalize the water balance of the baby,it is necessary to comply with the drinking regime and necessarily monitor the amount of urination. Normally, a newborn should urinate at least 8 times a day.
Also, the fontanel fills and after vomiting, diarrhea, thenthere is poisoning the body. If symptoms of intoxication were noticed, then it is necessary to seek medical help from a doctor. He will prescribe drugs to restore the water-salt balance, such as "Regidron." "Regidron" is good even for kids from the first days of life, but in the right concentration and quantity.
The protruding theme in a newborn is a serious symptom. Usually it looks like a slightly bloated site, which usually appears due to increased intracranial pressure in the child's head.
Increased intracranial pressure and protrusion of the fontanel can be a symptom of such diseases as:
It is possible to suspect such ailments only withpresence of other symptoms, including drowsiness, increased irritability, fever, convulsions, nausea and temporary loss of consciousness. All these signs serve as a direct indication for an early visit to the doctor, because not timely assistance can lead a newborn to death.
Visiting a pediatrician
Even before the birth of the baby mom must decide with a specialist who will monitor its development. The pediatrician must necessarily be highly qualified.
At each visit of the doctor, the fontanel is carefully inspected. Inspection is carried out on the following items:
- first a palate is probed and a conclusion is made, whether it is open or closed;
- its size is established and compared with the age of the baby;
- with slight pressure movements, the doctor determines the degree of softness of the fontanel, if its edges are too soft, this is likely to indicate rickets;
- palpation of the membranous part, with pressure the doctor should clearly feel pulsating.
If there are deviations from at least one of thepoints, then the pediatrician is obliged to prescribe an examination or treatment (with an already established diagnosis). As a rule, it is not superfluous to consider the passage of ultrasound in the newborn. This procedure is absolutely safe for the child and helps to identify some diseases in the initial stages.
Complete formation of fontanel
Usually full formation of a fontanel in a toddleroccurs in the first years of life and without any outside help. For the prevention of rickets, the child is recommended to give foods that are high in vitamin D.
Many mothers, especially the inexperienced, are afraidtouch the thread of the newborn. Such fears are absolutely groundless. It is protected by special membranes and it is impossible to harm the baby. The head should be gently washed, and then simply rubbed gently with a towel.
To accelerate the process of forming the fontanel pediatricians recommend to do a light massage, but it is necessary to accurately control the degree of pressure.
So, in conclusion, it should be noted that the soft theme performs a very important function in the development of the baby, and also helps to suspect the child of any congenital pathologies.