Granules of expanded polystyrene are becoming more and morepopular in the construction industry. They are not inferior in their characteristics to other types of insulation, while at the same low cost and environmental friendliness. Their size can vary from 2 to 8 mm. Granules have a dense structure filled with air, so they acquire a low level of thermal conductivity and water absorption.
There are two types of material:
- Primary expanded polystyrene. All elements have identical parameters and are implemented in various modifications, for example, "Mark-50" and "Mark-15", each of which has certain mechanical and physical indicators.
- Secondary. It is a by-product obtained in the manufacture of polystyrene foam. Granules of expanded polystyrene have an irregular shape, but they are not inferior in appearance to the first kind.
The material has acquired a wide distribution and is used as:
- bulk filling in packing boxes;
- Fundamentals for filters in water treatment systems;
- filler for soft toys, furniture, pillows;
- insulation for wall structures, floors and floors;
- heat-saving and noise-insulating layer in enclosing structures;
- decorative means (creation of hand-made articles and interior elements);
- filling for pontoons.
Foamed polystyrene pellets act inas one of the main components in the preparation of expanded polystyrene concrete, which is optimally suited for the insulation of interfloor ceilings, roofs and floors. To produce a dense solution, it is necessary to combine polystyrene, cement and water in a concrete mixer. Before laying the compound, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the surface. In the process of work, the speed of action plays a special role, since the solution solidifies almost immediately. Mounting reinforcing nets is made if the working surface exceeds the 50 mm mark or is made of a moisture-proof material, profiled flooring, linoleum of any kind and wood. If the thickness of the surface is less than 5 cm, the reinforcement becomes unnecessary. During installation, the ambient temperature should be at least 5 degrees.
The foam polystyrene foam polystyrene pellets have many positive aspects, among which are the following:
- unchanged form;
- environmental Safety;
- ease of use;
- low cost;
- minimum weight;
- the possibility of use for various design solutions;
- resistance to frost and fire;
- wide range of applications;
- high level of heat and sound insulation.
How is expanded polystyrene manufactured?
Granules, the price for which starts from 1600 rubles per cubic meter, are produced as follows:
- Multiple or single foaming. Elements are fed to a pre-foamer, in which their structure expands and gets a round shape. The process can be performed several times in a row, until the required density level is obtained.
- It is necessary to form a stable pressure in the internal cavity of the elements. The drying takes at least 12 hours.
The foaming stage has two stages, in this caseThe time of its passage is selected for each individual lot, depending on the quality of the material. Of particular importance is the observance of all rules, since if the necessary time is exceeded, the structure begins to deteriorate. As mentioned earlier, the polystyrene pellets are supplied to the pre-foaming agent, which is a reservoir with holes for supplying steam and a means for mixing the raw materials. During the foaming process, the temperature reaches 110 degrees. At this time pentane under the influence of hot steam promotes the expansion and softening of the material, the total volume increases by 40-50 times, while the structure remains the same.
To accelerate this process, we usemechanical stirring. Then the cells are raised under the influence of high pressure and pass into the intermediate tank, from which they are fed into the drying tank.
In the foam raw material contains about 10% moisture. In view of the fact that condensation of steam and pentane causes the discharge in the internal cavity, there is a possibility of material compression, which reduces the thermal insulation characteristics and reduces the total volume. That is why the indispensable stage of production is curing. This stage ensures the normalization of the pressure inside the cells and the strengthening of the external surface.
The necessary resistance properties are achieved by the action of a warm air stream penetrating into the cells. At the same time, as the degree of density decreases, the rate of air absorption increases.
Granules of expanded polystyrene dry for 5-10minutes. This process can be combined with the transportation of the material. Healing provides not only obtaining the required moisture level, but also increasing the flow of polystyrene.