Being a relative of the plum, cherry plum from the lasthas a higher drought resistance. However, on an equal basis with this, it does not have enough frost resistance to grow wild in the conditions of frosty winters.
History of Culture
It is believed that for the first time it was in Armeniacultivation of this fruit. Then the cherry plum began to gradually spread to areas with ancient agricultural culture - to Iran and Asia Minor, many Transcaucasian regions.
This is a perennial and multi-stemmed tree with a strongprickly branches sometimes reach a height of ten meters. Some varieties of cherry plum are shrubs that have thin brownish-green shoots. Flowers of this culture - white or pink - are single. Self-pollinated varieties of a cherry plum actively develop in the beginning, then, after ten years, their growth rate significantly decreases. On the trees and bushes, the tops or overgrown branches begin to form actively. This is due to the awakening of sleeping buds.
During the period of fruiting, the plant of this family, inincluding plum varieties for the middle belt, enters only the second or fourth year after disembarkation. Its flowering begins depending on the region both in mid-May and later. For example, a cherry plum for the central strip of our country produces bunches simultaneously with leaves.
Fruit ripening in the southern regions occurs inJune, it lasts until early October - depending on the form and variety. The fruit is a drupe. The root system of this garden culture has a shallow occurrence, and therefore the plant can be planted in areas where there is a close occurrence - up to one and a half meters - of groundwater. And although the southern varieties of early plum are quite drought-resistant, they are not winter hardy.
Alycha is very interesting and easy in the process of crossing with different varieties of plum. Thanks to this, her specialists have managed to solve many problems.
Breeders are still working to createnew varieties of this type of fruit culture. Need to say that in recent years there have already appeared enough varieties of "cherry plum", there are even winter-hardy varieties of plum blossoms for the middle belt - those regions of Russia in which severe frosts are a common occurrence. Among other advantages of this culture, experts also call its low demand for fertility of soil composition, rapidity and, of course, high yield. All these characteristics have become the reason for the popularity of this plant, and therefore today almost every second garden meets cherry plum.
Growing in the central strip of Russia newwinter-resistant varieties became possible due to the fact that there were such varieties that have a great advantage over other stone fruit species. At the same time, at first, few believed in the possibility of adapting this culture in the harsh conditions of the temperate continental climate.
At the end of the last century the Crimean agronomist G.Yeremin crossed the already existing hybrid cherry plum and various frost-resistant tree species. As a result, he created many varieties with remarkable properties. All of them were united into one family called "Russian plum".
The best varieties of cherry plum for the central part of Russia andregions located to the north, are well tolerated by twenty-degree frosts. They have the same productivity as their ancestor. According to taste and size, the fruits of these crossed varieties resemble the southern plum as much as possible. Hybrids, members of this group, today there are few more than three dozen species.
Characteristics of new varieties
Crossed for growth in conditions of severeRussian frost subspecies "Russian plum" are quick-fruited. Their fruiting begins already in the second or third year and occurs then every year. The yield, which characterizes such a hybrid culture, is quite high. Alycha, landing and care in the middle lane behind which nothing particularly differ from the requirements of its southern ancestress, for example, in the suburbs, can give from twenty to fifty kilograms of delicious juicy fruits from each tree.
Life expectancy of hybrid crossedvarieties - about two decades. In addition, the new "Russian plum" is resistant to pests or various diseases that often affect many fruit and berry crops.
In this case, experts note one morea characteristic feature that justifies the cultivation of cherry plum in the central zone of our country: in a temperate continental climate, when severe frosts and thaws often replace each other in the winter months, this plant does not undergo a rooting of the root neck.
Planting and care
In the central part of our country this light-lovingculture should not be planted in dark places. Hybrid varieties of plum blossom are reproduced mainly by grafting - ocularization, and in some cases by bones or green, with slightly lignified cuttings. Many gardeners prefer to separate and transplant and root shoots.
When growing plum from saplings obtained fromgreen lignified cuttings, rooting should be carried out in conditions where it is possible to create an artificial mist, while pretreating them with stimulants for growth.
The best time to plant plumbers in orchardsThe Russian middle belt is early spring: as soon as the snow comes down. It is not necessary to delay lagging with planting in the ground, because experts believe that a plant that has already begun to grow and has swollen buds is much worse. In the autumn, this process is undesirable due to the characteristics associated with the frost resistance of the crop.
The distance between the pits must befrom three to six meters. It depends on what sorts of cherry plums are cultivated and what kind of crown they have. Many types of "Russian plum" are self-fertile, so they need a neighborhood with pollinators. It can be such varieties as "Red Ball", "Skoroplodnaya", etc.
Pruning and pests
This plum in the southern regions grows to tenmeters, while the alycha in the central part of Russia, although it is developing rapidly, but its maximum height is 5-6 m. Nevertheless, it is necessary to carry out constant pruning, which will be aimed only at thinning. With a strong removal of branches, the vegetative growth of the crown may increase, but this will happen at the expense of yield.
Alycha, although not very susceptible to disease andpests, nevertheless, it can be affected by black or copper gnattoids, plum gluten or sawfly, and an apple-tree panel. Therefore, periodically in the garden you need to carry out preventive measures. When choosing a soil, the varieties of a cherry plum for the central strip of Russia are also not choosy. They can even grow and bear fruit where some stone cultures will feel uncomfortable and refuse to harvest. The main thing is to choose the right varieties, and then the southern beauty of cherry plum will bloom and delight in its delicious plums.
Varieties for the middle belt
Reviews of those who have already managed to land on their ownThis "Russian plum", especially the inhabitants of the Moscow region, indicates that this crop tolerates severe frosts well enough. The fact that cherry plum has long ceased to be a southern culture, pleases many.
Experienced gardeners prefer to grow hybrids,which are derived from experimental stations in the Crimean Scientific Research Institute of Plant Growing. They are distinguished not only by high yield and increased winter hardiness, but also resistance to pests with diseases. Many varieties are characterized by an extended period of ripening. The earliest ripen along with the late cherry. Many hybrids are not large, so gardeners note not only the ease of care for them, but also the convenience in harvesting.
To the most hardy, many varieties can be considered. "Traveler" - with early maturation and medium fruits with a weight of up to thirty grams. The tree has a medium-thick crown with an average density.
The "Ruby" type is classified as a species with medium maturity periods. He has dark red fruit, juicy pulp. Winter hardiness of this plum is very high.
"Kuban comet" refers to the mid-termpartially self-fertilized species, giving large fruits with a juicy fibrous flesh. The taste of these yellow plums is sweet and sour. The stone does not separate. Fruits of this variety are most often used for canning. The tree has a flat round crown, it grows weakly and begins to be fruit for the third or fourth year.
Alycha "Timiryazeskaya" was obtained as a result offree pollination of the "Kuban comet" in the Moscow Agricultural Academy in 1991. It has a very early maturity and high winter hardiness. Great for the Russian middle belt. "Timiryazevskaya" is relatively resistant to diseases, has an average yield and early fertility, is self-fertile. The taste of the fruits of this variety is sweet and sour, harmonious. The small bone is easily separated.
Many other varieties, such as "GoldScythians "," Cleopatra "," Nesmeyana "," Mara "," Gift to St. Petersburg ", etc., have basically an average height and a wide-ended or dropping crown. Their branches are spread out. Many of them, for example, the same alycha "Gold of the Scythians", "Yarilo", "Pramen", etc., are early ripening. The fruits of most of them reach up to thirty grams, sweet and juicy.
The species of cherry plum hybrid varieties are not very differentonly in color, but also in size and taste. They can be either amber or gently pink, and orange and dark purple, even variegated. The color of the fetus also depends on its chemical composition: in yellow, more citric acid and sugar, and in dark, many pectins. The taste is as pronounced sweet, with a tart-honey flavor, and strongly sour.
The flesh of the fruits of plum is dense and very tender. Bone, as a rule, is easily separated from many varieties.
Plums of plum or "Russian plum" contain up tothirteen percent of sugar, up to seven - organic acids, about 1.5% - pectin, as well as tannins, nitrogenous and mineral substances, a lot of carotene and vitamins C, B, A, B2, E, PP. In the kernels of the bones, about half of the composition is butter, which is very close in quality to the almond oil.
Many people cook from the flesh of the plum fruits todayjam and jam, prepare marmalade and pastille, use it as a seasoning for dishes. Compotes, juice, liquor, wine, jelly - all this can be prepared from the "Russian plum". In addition, it is often used for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
In addition, the main difference between the fruits of plumplum is that they, well holding on to a tree, practically do not fall off after ripening. And since the tree itself is not high, then it is not too difficult to break them. If you harvest before the ripening and final acquisition of the color characteristic of the variety, it ripens well in a cool, ventilated place. Another advantage is the convenience of transportation and long shelf life of the plum.