To stay in a private house was comfortable,here it is necessary to create a proper sewage system. This system can be mounted by hand. It is necessary to know the rules and norms of the construction of this object. The features of the sewage system should be considered in detail before starting work. This will be discussed in the article.
The price of the sewage system in a private house,which require specialized companies, is quite high. It depends on the type of work, the material selected and other factors. The average cost of installing pipes in the presence of a centralized drainage system is from 650 rubles per meter. However, it is much more often necessary to equip an autonomous sewage system.
The installation of a septic tank can cost differently.This work depends on the needs of home owners, the number of people who live here. With an independent arrangement of sewerage, you can save money from the family budget several times. Therefore, many private property owners decide to carry out such work independently.
Previously, private cottages were equipped with a cesspool.Today this method is practically not used. It does not meet modern sanitary requirements. To the place of such systems of autonomous sewerage came septic tanks, cleaning stations. They avoid the appearance of an unpleasant odor on the site. Staying hosts and their guests in a country house becomes comfortable.
There are two types of sewerage in a private house.This household and stormwater systems. The first of them is designed to collect drains from a bath, toilet, kitchen sink, etc. The device of storm sewage is necessary to prevent the flooding of cellars, the destruction of the foundation, the stagnation of moisture in the soil. This system collects thawed and storm water. This is especially important for a high rainfall area. Today these two systems are united into one. In the storm sewage of a private house there are no products on an oil or oil basis.
When connecting both systems, a largervolume of the septic tank. This will require a large investment of funds. The feasibility of such a combination of systems is decided by the owner of the site independently.
Design and types of systems
The sewage system in a private house with its ownhands requires to take into account a number of rules and requirements of building, sanitary norms. It is necessary to consider in detail the arrangement and types of such systems. Any type of sewage system is divided into three main parts. It consists of the inside (located in the house), the outside (outside the house) parts of the pipelines, as well as the receiving device. The correct functioning of the entire system depends on the correct choice of the type of septic tank. This issue should be given special attention.
The receiving device may be cumulative orpurifying. In the first case, drains are periodically removed from the septic tank. For this you need to contact specialized companies. Purifying systems are a more complex device. The choice depends on the specifics of the operation of the sewage system, the type of soil, the terrain on which the house is built.
The simplest receiving object iscesspool. This option is suitable for a small villa, where the owners are rare. The daily amount of drains should not exceed 1 m³ in this case. Otherwise, the bacteria that are in the soil will not have time to process inclusions.
Some owners of private houses build onhis site a cesspool with a closed bottom. In this case, waste accumulates inside the structure, requiring periodic pumping. And to carry out such a procedure is required quite often. This entails additional costs. This type of receiver is suitable for a small villa.
It is better to purchase a plastic septic tank. From it, the effluents do not enter the soil. They accumulate, requiring periodic pumping out of the contents. This work is carried out by a sewer machine. A closed septic tank is suitable for a dacha or a private house in which a small number of people live. Due to the special design of the tank, it is much less necessary to pump waste from such a receiver.
The sewerage system in the house may requireinstallation of a cleaning station. This is a special system that is able to process up to 98% of impurities of effluents. The result is technical water, suitable for watering. Inside the container sludge accumulates. It can be used as a fertilizer.
Choice of location on the site
The water supply and sewagein accordance with existing rules and regulations. On this depends the safety and comfort of people living in the house. It is very important when creating a sewage system that you select the correct location on the site for the location of the receiving device.
A drive or processing device is neededto choose correctly. The volume and type of processing are chosen on the basis of the daily amount of waste water. In this case, you need to consider how many people permanently or periodically reside in the house. To calculate the required volume, you need to determine the maximum daily amount of waste. The result is multiplied by 3. The value obtained corresponds to the volume of the septic tank.
On the average, the amount of run-off is 200 liters,if one person lives in the house. It will require a 600 liter septic tank. If the house has a permanent family of 3 people, you need a drive capacity of 1800 liters. For sale are storage and cleaning facilities with one or more cameras. If the branches 2 or 3, when you select, they summarize their volume.
When the dimensions of the receiver are known,pick up for him the right place on the site. The relief is assessed. If it is complex, the septic will need to be installed in the lowest part of the site. In this case, from it to the nearest objects there must be a certain distance.
The installation of water supply and sewage isresponsible action. The septic tank should not be closer than 50 m from the source with drinking water. Prior to the road and residential house should be a distance of at least 5 m. If there is a reservoir near the open reservoir, the septic tank should be removed from it no less than 30 m.
The sewage system in a private house requiresdrawing up the scheme. It is best to do this at the stage of planning a house. So communications, other objects of the system will be located rationally. The premises in which the water is drained must be located in the same sector of the house. This will save on the purchase of pipes, fittings. The small length of the pipes makes it possible to reduce the likelihood of breakdowns, the assumption of errors during installation.
First you need to create a house plan. It should be drawn on millimeter paper, indicating the exact dimensions. Next, the diagram shows the location of the main riser. Its diameter is 110 mm (as well as the withdrawal of the toilet). Therefore, the main riser is most often arranged in the toilet. This is also necessary due to the fact that the distance from the collector to the toilet should not be more than 1 m.
The main riser is applied to the plan to the exit pointpipes from the building. It is in the foundation. The outlet point of the sewage pipes is equipped with a special protective sleeve. Next, you need to apply all the drain points. From them it is necessary to draw lines of pipes to the main collector. The nearby communications can be connected. For example, from a sink and a bath, the sink can be made from one pipe. The diversion from the toilet bowl can not be combined with other lines.
Sewer pipes must be inclined. It is 3% for communications with a diameter of 50 mm and 2% for a diameter of 110 mm.
After the development of the internalyou need to create a scheme for external communications. This will require a plan of the plot with trees, buildings, etc. on it. From all objects, the pipes must pass at a distance of 3 m. In the turning places, the pipe cuts, inspection wells are installed.
Materials for installation
For the installation of sewage networks,purchase the required amount of materials. They must meet construction and sanitary requirements. Previously, for the arrangement of sewerage in a private house used cast-iron pipes. Today this option is almost never used. Cast iron communications are heavy. There are difficulties with their transportation and installation.
Sewer pipes are made of polymermaterials. You should choose the communication of a suitable diameter. For the main riser and drainage of the toilet bowl, pipes with a diameter of 110 mm are required, and for a bath, sinks, a sink - 50 mm.
For internal networks, polypropylenepipes. They are flexible, able to withstand loads, temperature changes. These communications are painted in gray. Hot water from the bath, kitchen can drain through such channels. Gradually it cools. At the exit from the house, the temperature of the liquid decreases. Therefore, the installation of sewer pipes outside is carried out using other types of materials.
For installation of communications outside the house is suitableproducts from PVC. Such pipes have an orange color. This is necessary so that the pipes can be seen in the ground. PVC is not designed for the transport of hot drains. However, for external networks it fits perfectly. Such pipes are characterized by high strength.
Pipes outside the house require additional insulation. This is especially important for regions in which the depth of soil freezing is significant. Otherwise, you will need to deepen the networks a lot.
As a heater, polyurethane foam is suitable. Its layer is from 3 cm. With this thermal insulation it is possible to protect communications. You will also need to purchase polyethylene film. She is wrapped with polyurethane foam on top. When choosing a heater it is necessary to give preference to roll materials, which on one side have a foil coating.
Features of creating internal networks
Rules of the device of the water drain in own houseThey plan to install networks starting from home. At the same time, it is necessary to determine whether communications are hidden or open. The first option is more complicated. However, all the pipes will be hidden from the eyes in the thickness of the wall. This greatly improves the interior.
For a hidden communication system,walls special channels. These can be niches or special boxes. For the hidden method of laying pipes necessarily provide for the presence of inspection windows. They are created in the places of installation of stop valves, on the turns of pipes. This will make it possible, if necessary, to assess the condition of the networks and perform repairs.
An open method of installationpipes directly over the wall surface. Fastening is carried out with the help of clamps, hangers and other similar devices. The correct angle of inclination is observed. Connections are carried out using appropriate adapters.
Building a sewer system inside the houseinvolves the installation of special seals. They prevent the ingress of odors into the premises. Such devices must be installed for each drain point. In the places where the pipes are rotated, tees should be mounted for revision. This will allow the system to be serviced quickly and easily.
It should be noted that for turns it is not necessaryapply angles of 90º. It is better to buy two fittings at 45º. Otherwise, deposits will accumulate at the turning point. This will lead to the need to clean the system often.
Ventilation for internal sewerage network
The sewage system by our own hands assumesarrangement of ventilation. It performs 2 functions. Ventilation removes the gases that form in the system, and also provides airflow. Oxygen fills the rarefaction zones that can appear when the wastewater is drained intensively or when water is supplied under pressure. A similar situation occurs when the toilet is drained or when the washing machine is in operation.
A sufficient amount of air in the system avoids the trapping of water from the water seals. Otherwise, it will be accompanied by loud, unpleasant sounds.
To create ventilation, a fantrumpet. It is a continuation of the main vertical riser. This line goes to the roof. If you make this network wrong, unpleasant smells will enter the house. The pipe must not be blocked by ice during the cold season. Therefore, for ventilation get products with a diameter of 110 mm.
The pipe must be above the rest of the objects on the roof. It should be at a distance from windows, balconies not less than 4 m. You can not remove this pipe to the attic or to the general ventilation duct.
Sewer installation in the house with their own handsrequires the strict implementation of all requirements of the standards. Otherwise, you will not be able to use the system. In the house there will be noise, an unpleasant smell. The people who live here will be extremely uncomfortable. Therefore, the creation of ventilation and internal sewage networks should be carefully thought out.
External sewage system
Work on the installation of sewerage afterthe internal arrangement of networks are transferred to the street. It is necessary to create a straight line from the house to the receiver of drains. However, when building a system on a site where there are already buildings and trees, it will be necessary to think through the system of turns and branches.
When creating communications outside the building, alsoyou need to maintain the correct angle. It should be about 3 cm per 1 m of pipe. If the angle of inclination is less, a blockage is formed, since water can not tolerate large slurries. If the tube is tilted more strongly, heavy particles will accumulate on the walls. Water will run too fast.
In accordance with the previously developed planmarking is carried out on the site. Next, you need to dig a pit for a septic tank. After this, you can create trenches for pipes. The depth of excavation for a well or finished septic tank must correspond to the required angle of inclination of communications.
The device of the water drain in a summer residence or in the private houseIt involves pipes at a certain depth. The upper point of the networks should be 70-80 cm below the ground. Its lower edge, which is fed to the septic, will be located at a depth of 140 cm, if the length of the message is 20 m. In some cases, the lower end of the pipe is deepened to 2 m. This depends on the length of the communications.
Such requirements for deepening are explainedfeatures of soil freezing. The network should be 15 cm lower than this boundary. If the earth freezes even deeper, there is no way to avoid heat insulation. It is recommended to create it in any case. This will become insurance in case of prolonged and severe frost.
The wastewater receiver can be with or without a bottomhim. Ready-made septic tanks are available for sale, which are simply installed in a prepared pit. However, quite often the owners of suburban or private real estate prefer to conduct the installation of sewerage wells. This installation option is more complicated.
To create a well, it will be necessary to purchasereinforced concrete or plastic rings. They are installed on top of each other. By deepening the well, you can get the required capacity of a septic tank. The bottom of the well must be airtight. According to sanitary norms, water should not leak from such a structure into the ground.
A well can also be made of bricks. Mortar after drying the solution will require plastering with a special solution. This is a long, time-consuming and costly process. Therefore, concrete rings are used much more often.
The sewage can be assumeddevice septic tank. It consists mostly of 2 sections. They are interconnected. The first container is a chamber with a sealed bottom. The sewers enter here, separating with time into solid waste (settling down) and water (rising upwards).
The second well does not have a sealed bottom. It receives residual water from the first container. The second well has flooring from the rubble, sand. Water seeps into the ground, before cleaning.
Advice of specialists
The sewage system requires a masterdeep knowledge. You need to correctly create a scheme of internal and external networks. The choice of materials depends on many factors. Experts argue that, provided that a large number of people live in a private house, it is better to install a ready-made septic tank or a purification plant. If the surrounding conditions permit ground cleaning, a system with a filtration well should be installed.
To create external networks with branchesit will be necessary to provide for the presence of inspection wells on the site. This is necessary in the event that, for example, a separate branch from the bathhouse is fed to the system. The creation of observation wells on the site will allow to inspect the system, carry out its revision, cleaning and, if necessary, repair.
Today, a large number offinished septic tanks and treatment facilities. Their use will reduce the cost of pumping out accumulated waste. If necessary, you can purchase a special pump. With its help, you can independently remove waste from a septic tank. It will take much less time to call a sewer machine.
Having considered the features of the sewerage system ondacha or in a private home, you can create a system yourself. Only if all construction and sanitary requirements are met can a reliable, functional drainage network be created. If properly planned, you can reduce the cost of maintenance of the septic tank.