This is an exotic guest in our apartments and houses,since the birthplace of the anthurium (the flower of "male happiness", or flamingo, as it is often called) - the tropics and subtropics. He is loved by many experienced florists and is desirable for beginners. Beautiful and unusual flowers, or rather, perianth, attract attention, decorate the interior and are also great for cutting into bouquets. The bright appearance, the flashy features of the anthurium provided him with great demand, but before settling it at home, it is necessary to learn everything about him and compare his capabilities with the "desires" of this slightly capricious guest.
Description of genus
According to many botanists, the genus Anthurium is oneof the largest (numbering about 500 species) in the family of Aroids. Its representatives are evergreen plants, usually epiphytes or semi-epiphytes, having numerous air roots for anchoring on other plants, descending to the ground in the rainforests. In addition, they can absorb the missing moisture from the air. Anthuriums have a short, thick stalk and short internodes on it. The leaves are completely different in shape and structure, they can be brittle or dense leathery, dissected or whole, matt and glossy, color from rich dark to bright green with white veins. The anthurium's homeland is the tropical forests of Central and South America, besides representatives of the genus are widespread in the mountains (the Andes and the Cordilleras). Of particular interest is the inflorescence and its veil, which can be of different shades: cream, purple, bright red, green. For this, and appreciated by representatives of this genus in indoor floriculture. Anthurium is easy to grow at home, but it is quite demanding for lighting, humidity and soil.
The most common and often purchased species.The trunk is short and almost invisible. The leaves are shaped like a heart and large enough (up to 30 cm in length), dark green with a glossy wax coating. The cover of the inflorescence can have different shades: salmon, bright scarlet, white, pink or green. This large plant is suitable for growing in the room conditions best, since the rest of the species are predominantly greenhouse dwellers. The homeland of Anturium Andre is the humid tropics of Ecuador and Colombia. This species is abundant and blooming with good and proper care. Beautiful inflorescences can be used to make a composition or in bouquets in a cut shape.
It is very easy to distinguish from the previous species andin general from all the others thanks to the red-orange flower bedspread, large enough (10-12 cm) and the cob, which, as it grows, twists in an unusual way, taking the form of a spiral. The main, original view, grows where the anthurium's homeland is. Room breeders were brought out by highly selective representatives precisely on its basis. The plant has dark green leaves, matte, in shape can be different, have strongly pronounced veins. The homeland of the anthurium of Scherzer is a humid tropical forest on the slopes of the Cordillera in Costa Rica (South America). Decorative-deciduous forms are more tolerant of sunlight, unlike beautifully flowering species.
Anthuriums with decorative leaves
Among indoor florists there are twotype: crystal and gorgeous anthurium. Both of them have large and very effective leaves. At anthurium crystal they are dark green, densely pubescent, have bright veins and glossy luster. In indoor culture, it can reach a height of up to one meter. Anthurium gorgeous differs from it only slightly bluish leaf shade and more tiny sizes. Breeders produced many intermediate forms. Anthurium crystal is best to grow in a greenhouse or a greenhouse; at home it is not so warm and dry in the air, but, in principle, with the proper effort will get accustomed. It is important to know that for this specimen one must provide space, so that its large leaves do not interfere with growth. Features of care for different types of anthurium are the same.
Place in the house
The homeland of the anthurium is tropical forests, in whichthe direct sun is falling, and in the thickest jungle there is generally a twilight. It is always very important to take into account the natural conditions of plant growth. Therefore, an anthurium should be provided with a good bright spot or partial shade without direct sunlight, from which it can get burns on the leaves. The air temperature in the house should be without sudden fluctuations and differences: 20-25 ° C in summer and about 18 ° C in winter. Do not allow drafts, since this is a stressful situation for the plant, which can even lead to its death.
If you turn to one of the oldest teachings -Feng Shui, it is clearly and clearly stated there that plants in the house exert a significant positive influence on a person, the main thing is to know what to put and where. As for the anturium, he is credited with the amazing properties of relieving depression and negative mood. The plant helps to establish an atmosphere of peace in the house, adjusts to a positive way, strengthens intuition.
Which one to choose the soil?
Correctly selected soil is already halfsuccess in the cultivation process. Ground of any composition can now be purchased in specialized stores. And it is very convenient if you have one plant. If you want to prepare the soil yourself, it is important to remember that the anthurium's homeland (the "flower of the flamingo") is tropical forests, and the plant itself is epiphyte. Consequently, he needs a primer of light, breathable and moisture-permeable. The reaction of the medium must be acidic or slightly acidic. The optimal ratio of soil components for anthurium will be the following: humus, leafy earth, peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 0.5). All components should be well calcined in an oven or oven (individually) to prevent the emergence of various bacterial or fungal diseases. For good throughput, you can add a special substrate for orchids, or natural organic materials: cones, walnut or coconut shells, pine bark, charcoal or expanded clay. Their total share should be 15% of the total volume of the soil mixture. They very well improve the structure of the soil, allow the roots to breathe and do not allow moisture to stagnate, and this is one of the main conditions that an anturium requires at home. The photo below shows how the plant suffers when planted in the wrong ground. The yellowing of the leaves may indicate a lack of air for the roots and a too heavy soil structure.
How to water?
Moisture in the soil and in the air (but not its stagnation) - herethat he loves an anturium. The native land of the plant is the tropics, and this explains this need. Water should be water at room temperature, preferably soft, settled, thawed or rain, abundantly, but not flooded. Do not allow soil to dry out too. Excess moisture should be drained from the pallet, which, by the way, can be filled with expanded clay or sand, which will increase the humidity that the plant likes. Anthurium must be sprayed and often enough, not allowing water to enter the inflorescence, as this will spoil their appearance. Some growers recommend on the soil surface, around the plant, to place wet moss, this will stimulate the growth of air roots. Anthurium leaves periodically need to be wiped off with a damp sponge or put a pot of flower under the shower for a while, pre-covered with polyethylene earthen lump. In the period of active growth and flowering, the plant requires additional fertilizing with a special mineral fertilizer. Periodicity - twice a month, concentration - according to the instructions on the packaging or even half as much.
Transplanting Anthurium (room or recentlybought in the store) it must be borne in mind that if you want a lush blossom, then the pot should not be large, it is best to take a wide, but shallow. At the bottom of a thick layer it is necessary to pour the drainage. If the goal - to multiply it with the help of layers, it is desirable to take a pot of larger size.
In general, an anturium is transplanted only incase of emergency, since he does not like when he is disturbed. At each change of plant, the plant should be slightly dug slightly more than the previous point. If many aerial roots have appeared (which is not surprising, because the anthurium's native land is moist forests, and it's epiphyte), or the underground roots are exposed, it is necessary to cover them with moist moss. Every year, only young plants need to be transplanted, adults should not be bothered for two or three years.
Reproduction of anthuriums by seeds
In room conditions, you can multiply an anthurium in two ways. Care (photos of seedlings presented below) for young plants is not much different from growing large specimens.
To begin with, seeds can be obtainedin two ways: from a store or at home. In the first case, everything is simple and understandable. In the second, it will take time and some effort. Flowering plants need to be pollinated by hand using a brush, you need to do this several times. And then wait at least six months for the seeds to ripen. If the anthuriums that are at home, varietal, then be prepared for the fact that the daughter plants may not have the signs of the mother if it is a hybrid of the first generation. After the berries ripen the seeds are released from the pulp, washed in a solution of potassium permanganate and sown, the soil from above does not need to be sprinkled. The container must be covered with glass, as germination takes place in the light. Sometimes they practice planting on filter paper in a cup of Petra. Wait for shoots need 2-3 weeks, and after the appearance of the first real leaf, the plant should be dived. Further care is the same as for an adult anthurium.
This method of reproduction is much simpler, the percentagesuccess is greater and in time it is much faster. There are two variants of its implementation. The first is the apical cuttings. The most suitable time comes in May-June. Cut must be disinfected with a sharp knife (leave only two leaves), and then slightly dried and rooted in moist, light soil.
The second way is the division of the anthurium bush. It is effective and also contributes to the rejuvenation of the plant and the onset of flowering option. The plant should be carefully removed from the pot and shake the ground. Then, with a sharp knife, separate that part of the bush where there is at least one escape. Immediately put in the prepared soil a young anthurium. The native land of the plant is the tropical forests of South America, where it forms large-scale thickets due to a fairly simple vegetative reproduction and numerous air roots.
Diseases and pests
Cultivating the anthurium in the room, one must always remember about the prevention of diseases and pests. The most common are:
- Shield. It is difficult to notice them singly, but when whole colonies appear, it can be seen with the naked eye: yellow or reddish-brown spots appear on the damaged places, and the scabbards themselves look like scales. There are many people's methods, but they can only give an effect at the initial stage, in other cases it is not worthwhile to pull, we must immediately handle special drugs (for example, "Aktara"), use them according to the instructions.
- Spider mite and aphids. The first pests should be looked for on the inside of the leaves, they can be from light-milk color to red. But what does aphids look like, perhaps, everyone knows. The principle is the same, do not rely on folk ways, immediately use a professional. For treatment and prevention, experts advise using Iskra, for this you need to dilute one tablet in ten liters of water.
- With bacterial decay and anthracosis, which is a sign of the appearance of various spots on the leaves, it is necessary to use "Hom".
Symptoms and Causes
1. Yellowed leaves. There can be many options, it is necessary to act by an exception method:
- wrong, most often very copious watering;
- use of tap water with chlorine content (it must be allowed to stand);
- excess of organic and mineral fertilizers in the soil;
- little light, despite the fact that the anthurium's homeland is the tropics, and he does not like the bright sun, yet a prolonged stay in the shade for him is not too good either;
- little space to the roots, anthurium needs a transplant.
2. The spots on the leaves are brown:
- improperly selected substrate;
- excess moisture in the soil;
- too low air temperature in the room;
- defeat of aphids, anthracosis.
3. Blackening leaf leaves completely or in separate areas:
- dry air, in this case the tips of the leaves first turn black and dry;
- drafts in the apartment;
- too much calcium in the soil.
In general, in the culture of cultivation anthurium is verysimilar to spathiphyllum. They belong to the same family - the aroid - with the only difference that the first plant is epiphyte, and the second grows, as a rule, on the banks of water bodies. But the birthplace of anthurium - room spathiphyllums - is one. These are tropical forests. Therefore, they are so similar both externally and in the features of cultivation. There is even an opinion that for family well-being it is worthwhile to have at home both plants, since one is called masculine and the other is feminine happiness. Is this true or prejudice, but that together they look very harmonious, it's a fact!