The very word "orchid" conceals in itself some kind of charm andmysteriousness. Cultivation of this amazing plant at home is a real pleasure, especially when the pet begins to delight you with his truly royal colors of the most unthinkable colors. But all this is possible only with proper care. The plant is rather unpretentious, but at the same time has its own "character." Very often you can face all sorts of troubles, so it is so important to know the diseases of orchids and their treatment.
First of all it is necessary to say a few words about the proper care of these plants. After all, this is the main factor in preventing various diseases and guaranteeing good flowering.
7 major mistakes in orchid care
- Excessive and frequent watering - this is one of the main reasons that kill an orchid. Strictly follow the recommendations regarding the water regime.
- Cold drafts in the room. Remember that they are by no means a substitute for airing and are not an equivalent concept.
- Too dry air in the apartment. Orchids are inhabitants of tropical forests, where humidity is close to 100%.
- Direct sunlight in the summer. From midday heat the plant needs to be shaded.
- Wet leaves. Spray and water the plants should be in the morning. If you systematically do this in the evening, then you will certainly provoke diseases of the leaves of orchids.
- A source of heat nearby, namely - heating batteries. Most often this leads to damage to the leaves.
- Too much fertilizing with fertilizers. You can not, firstly, bring them into a period of rest, and secondly, in an arbitrary concentration, strictly follow the instructions on the package.
To avoid the question of how to save orchids, stick to these basic postulates. Otherwise, you may experience some difficulties.
Problems with errors in care
We learn about the fact that something is wrong with the plant, first of all we learn from the leaves. This is the most important indicator, or, at least, the most noticeable for us.
The first signal that not everything is in order,serves to change the color of the leaves. If they have acquired a yellow tinge or reddened, then perhaps the reason is too bright sun. If the emerging new leaves become too dark, then most likely they lack the light. A sign of malnutrition can be a change in the intensity of the color, when all the greens become evenly pale. These changes are not fatal. And if the question is not how to save orchids, then it is necessary to help the plant.
A more serious sign is wiltingleaves or even their falling off. The first thing to do is to carefully inspect the plant for the appearance of pests. If its appearance is quite healthy, then the reason can be covered in dehydration. Surprisingly, but the fact: the same symptoms may indicate both a surplus of moisture, and its lack. When the substrate dries up, the roots of the orchid lose the source of water and can not, therefore, supply the leaves with it. And with an excess of moisture, they simply rot and can not cope with their function. As a result, you get faded or falling leaves.
Well and one more most widespread situation -this is the appearance of black spots. They appear either on the entire surface of the sheet, or only on the tips. In the first case, the reason is hidden, most likely, in excess of the sun, and the plant was simply burned, and in the second fault, waterlogging, drafts.
Bacterial diseases of orchids and their treatment
This is perhaps the most difficult categorydiseases, because when they notice signs, as a rule, it is already too late to do anything. Specific for orchids is the brown leaf spot, especially phalaenopsis. The leaf affected by this disease first turns yellow, and then acquires a brown hue. Infected tissue becomes soft and covered with ulcers, from which comes the cell sap. The question arises, how to save orchids with such a disease. The first thing to do is to isolate the diseased plant from the rest. Sites of leaves affected by brown spotting, carefully cut out, while capturing a healthy tissue. Sections are best sprinkled with chopped charcoal. This measure is effective at the initial stage. After all the sections are dried, the plant should be treated with special preparations (fungicides). For example, "Strobi", "Vectra", "Phytosporin", etc. If the flower is damaged too much, including the bulb, then it will not be able to help him, will have to be discarded.
How to save orchids from fungal diseases? The answer is the same - observe the rules of care. Most often orchids are affected by gray and black rot. Both diseases are fungal in nature, which causes the transient nature of their course and complexity in liquidation.
The signs of its appearance are spotsbrown or black with the edges of a pink hue. Most often they occur on flowers (petals and sepals). The reason for the appearance is the combination of high humidity with low temperature, and inadequate ventilation. At the first signs of the disease, the affected flowers should be removed, and the mistakes in the nursing should be eliminated. For preventive maintenance it is necessary to process a fungicidal preparation.
This is a more serious disease. The most affected are phalaenopsis and cattleya. The first sign is the appearance on the leaves of dark spots, along the edges of which a light strip is formed. Further, black rot passes to the bulb and roots. The reason lies in everything in the same - low air temperature and at the same high humidity, bogging of the substrate. In this case it is important to know how to save an orchid. Are the roots rotten or just slightly damaged? In any case, the plant should be destroyed. It can not be saved, but it is possible to infect others with ease. If only the leaves are affected, then immediately cut the affected areas to a healthy tissue. Further the procedure is the same as for gray rot.
This category of diseases is sufficientis widespread. And, as already mentioned, the rot develops extremely quickly, affecting all parts of the plant. Very often there is a question about how to save an orchid without leaves. This can be done only if the growth point is not damaged or there are sleeping buds.
In addition to bacterial and fungal diseases, orchids are very often attacked by pests. Let's consider each variant in more detail.
These are small (from 1 to 4 mm) insects, which,depending on the type, can be green, yellow or black. They suck the juice out of the plant, so the favorite location is buds, flowers, young leaves and sprouts. In the places of their greatest accumulation honey-plaque is formed, on which dark mold subsequently develops. At the initial stage, the plant should be washed with soapy water, and cut off the buds and flowers affected by insects. If the colonies are too large, then insecticides are used, for example, "Fitoverm", "Inta-Vir". Keep in mind that most often they all need to be re-processed after a certain period, so carefully read the instructions and follow the safety precautions.
These are very small flying insects with a body,having a yellow or black color. Most often they can be seen with the naked eye. In addition, signs of the appearance of thrips are spots and stripes on leaves and flowers of silvery color. Buds affected by insects begin to deform. Their appearance and active reproduction is facilitated by a prolonged drought. Therefore, it is so important to know what kind of soil is needed for an orchid and how to maintain constant moisture in it.
A small insect, most often appearing onorchids with soft leaves, for example, tsimbidium. Its active development and rapid reproduction is facilitated by dry air in the room and elevated temperatures. A characteristic feature is the appearance of pale, and then darkening spots, sometimes a spider web is visible. Control and prevention measures are the same. Once a week, treat the plant with an insecticide. Similarly come when a false shoe appears.
This is a very insidious pest. Often, his abilities are underestimated, as a result, the plant can no longer be saved. Appearance of pests resembles plaques of brown or gray. They suck the juice out of the plant, so most of them can be found on leathery leaves. A female adult spends her whole life in a motionless state, protecting her wax shield. With this feature, it is connected that it is difficult to get rid of them. The appearance of scabbards can be the answer to the question of why the orchid dries. Insects draw juice from leaves, so they begin to fade, then turn yellow and eventually fall off.
The main object of these pests are inprimarily weakened plants with disturbed metabolism, "overfed" with nitrogen fertilizers. You can get rid of the scabbard, but it will take some effort. Initially, isolate the affected orchid from the remaining plants. Then you should wash it with water or a normal soap solution - this will help get rid of young and mobile individuals. There are many folk ways, but is it worth risking and launching the disease even more? Therefore, we recommend using insecticides immediately. Treat the plant carefully, the scutes like to hide in the axils of the leaves, especially in orchids with symposium branching.
These are very small insects that seem tocovered with cotton-like cotton. They, as a rule, settle in the axils of the leaves or on their underside, on pseudobulbs. When large colonies are formed, the plant stops growing. A sign of their appearance may also be faded leaves. Very often a mealybug can be brought home with a newly purchased plant. Therefore, it is so important the first few weeks a new orchid, and any other flower, hold it in isolation from others and observe. In this case, the advice is particularly concerned with phalaenopsis. Methods for controlling the mealybug are similar to those for the appearance of scutes.
Slugs and snails
Of course, in the room they are unlikelywill appear. Slugs and snails - this is an attack for those who breed and keep orchids in greenhouses and greenhouses. These mollusks primarily damage the buds and peduncles, as well as the tips of the rhizomes of orchids. Preventing their occurrence is the timely cleaning of debris and plant debris from the greenhouses. These pests are nocturnal, so when darkness comes, you can try to collect them in the light of a flashlight. But it is best to lay out special anti-slip pellets.
The whole secret of a healthy plant is the right onecare for him. Observing the right temperature and humidity, choosing the right soil and the location of the plant in the house, setting a competent watering regime, you will save yourself from many problems.