Mars, bearing the name of the god of war, has also satellites withthe corresponding name: Deimos (in translation - "horror") and Phobos ("fear"). Of particular interest is the first satellite of Mars, especially interested scientists in the 70's of last century. The assumptions made regarding the origin of this block deserve, at a minimum, a weighty book "a la fiction"). Judge for yourself...
Space circles of the USA and the former Union put forwardthe assumption that Phobos, the companion of Mars, is nothing more than an artificial object, a space battle station hovering over a red dead planet, as a terrible reminder of the once-occurred cosmic war.
The assumption was put forward after the firstPhobos research then, in the 70's, an American research apparatus called "Viking". No one paid attention to the received pictures. At first, I did not pay ... What interest could a lump represent, which is only 28 km in diameter? According to solar measures, this satellite of Mars was only a thousandth of a grain of sand. But after a more detailed study, the details were opened, which caused surprise among the scientists. The limit of photographic resolution allowed us to consider ... chains of craters. Moreover, these chains stretched into two neat, even lines. Astronomers explained this first by the activity of volcanoes, citing the example of the moon. On the satellites, according to their theory, the lines of the craters are stretched parallel to the orbits of the planets. But Phobos speculated categorically: the lines of his craters are almost perpendicular to the trajectory of the satellite's flight.
One fantastic theory was replaced by another.At first they decided that volcanic activity is possible on the satellite, but it seems incredible: the size of Phobos is negligible! Then the following assumption was made: the satellite was bombarded by meteorites. But what force did they pull so accurately, forming even chains?
The companion of Mars drew attention to JosephShklovsky, the Soviet astrophysicist, who decided to carry out calculations of the movement of Phobos. Too fast was this speed: a day - three full turns in orbit! The speed of its rotation was much higher than the speed of Mars itself. The next assumption was no less fantastic: to maintain such a high speed, Phobos had to be ... hollow. Was this really a space station?
Already at the turn of the 90's this conjecture was divided andColonel of the Air Force Marina Popovich. To believe that Phobos is an artificial satellite, it was forced to immediately enclose data obtained from the "Phobos-2" apparatus belonging to the Soviet Union. It was extremely difficult to see these data, - the connections of Pavel's husband helped.
Now very few people remember about the launch of twoidentical names "Phobos-1" and the analogue "Phobos-2". The first was not destined to fly to Mars because of the accident, the second reached the goal, but before the rapprochement with the satellite, the connection was suddenly interrupted. However, several images were still obtained. One photo was published by the mass media and became a common property. On it was clearly visible an elliptical shadow cast on the surface of Mars. There is an assumption that it was Phobos himself, the companion of Mars. But the word "shadow" in some experts caused a skeptical smile, because the shadow was perfectly discernible through the infrared camera, which is in the apparatus. It was installed to record the presence of thermal objects. But by definition a warm shadow can not just be. Then what was it?
But the second (secret) picture was receivedimmediately before the loss of communication. It was an image of a giant cylindrical object hanging on the surface of Phobos. The dimensions were really impressive: 1.5 km in diameter and 20 km long! Marina Popovich believed that it was this object that destroyed "Phobos-2", in order to prevent the possibility of exploring the satellite. It happened at the very moment when the device was supposed to drop measuring instruments on the surface of Phobos.
Another confirmation that someone is stubborninterferes with the research, it was in 1993. For unknown reasons, on August 22 of that year, the translation from another, the American apparatus "Mars Observer", which was in the orbit of the planet Mars, suddenly stopped. Satellites have not been studied.
Last year's attempt to launch "Phobos-soil" ended in failure.
Perhaps, it was time to put a cross on the research. But there is hope for low-cost NASA "Mars Global Surveyor" and "Mars Atfinder", which compose detailed maps of Mars. However, they did not begin to study Phobos. What is it? Superstition? Or does the US have information to refrain from research?
There are other versions of originsatellites: Deimos and Phobos could appear as a result of a cosmic catastrophe. Somehow asteroids hit the orbit of Mars, and remained in the gravitational field. And perhaps, Phobos is a part of Mars itself? But in order to accept at least one of the latest versions, it is necessary to delete all previous received data and versions ...