In the US, the smallest coin is rarely calledofficially - cent. More often say "penny". It so happened that 5 cents is "nickel", 10 - "daim", and 25 - "kuoter", that is quarters (for us, of course, this word is completely different). Americans in general are conservative people, the design of their money is changed reluctantly and only forcedly. So the modern 1 cent coin looks the same as a hundred years ago.
What is a cent?
If the "dollar" is a distorted "thaller", then"Cent" came from the Latin word "centum", which means the old good hundred. The Roman centurions, in which centurions, sentis, and hentazimo served, all these "hundred" designations have a similar etymology. In each of the languages, they mean one percent (one more education from this word). Not only in America, but also in dozens of other countries in which the base unit is not always called the dollar, these coins are in motion. And in Australia, and in the united Europe, and in exotic Brunei, and in Canada, and in Hong Kong, and in Mauritius, and in the little-known state of Kiribati, and in many other places, nobody is surprised that the smallest coin is 1 cent. But for the first time this unit was introduced in the North American States.
The appearance of a coin
Generally, cents appeared on American soilthree years earlier than the most common currency now, namely in 1783. One hundred of these coins formed one dollar. Before 1857 there were also half-breeders (and in Russia at that time polkopeyki went).
Coins with the profile of George Washington in par value1 cent of the sample, which is still in use today, was put into circulation in 1909. Then the dollar was very expensive, it was provided with gold, and "weighed" about one gram. Today, such an amount of "yellow metal" goes for forty dollars or more, there is no binding, and the price is determined by the exchange rate, but then, more than a century ago, there was no sense in saving on the penny making metal, and it was made of an alloy with a high copper content . As it turned out, it turned out expensive.
Appearance of coins
There is no small change in the world, soas diverse as 1 cent. The coin is produced in different countries, its shape reflects the national and natural features, including the flora and fauna of different climatic zones. But the main thing is still the American cent, whose appearance also changed many times. First, the reverse (reverse from the nominal side) was decorated with various symbols of freedom, the main value of the New World. In the nineteenth century, the attention of workers of the Federal Reserve, or rather of its emission centers, attracted other impersonations of America - white-headed eagles, bison and even Indians, indigenous people (the attitude towards them has not changed). The previous century was marked by a respectful attitude towards the first US president, and besides him, a 1-cent coin has traditionally been adorned with an assurance of faith.
Over the past decades, the dollar in itspurchasing power strongly passed the position. Pragmatic Americans, accustomed to calculating everything, thought about how much is 1 cent, and whether it is too expensive for taxpayers. The USA is a rich country, and is proud of its traditions, but in this issue they clearly came into conflict with the economy. The public reacted to this situation with a practical penny boycott. In some outlets, the smallest bronze coins simply refuse to accept, rounding up prices to "nickel". In favor of such a decision, simple calculations say. Firstly, the production of the "censor" costs each of the emission centers almost 1.8 times more than its nominal value. Secondly, in the United States remember that time is money, and spend it on recounting almost nothing worth a trifle - a wasteful occupation, the average citizen of the United States takes 2 hours 24 minutes a year. In addition, the coining of coins and the preparation of bronze is a technological process, in the ecological purity of which the people doubt. So it is quite possible that soon cents, if they will be taken into account, only with non-cash settlements.