Where did this craft come from? The village of Palashchel, which is located on the picturesque bank of the Mezen River, defined the name of the whole direction in
The fishery became very popular in the 19th century.Boxes and spinning wheels from the Mezen River spread along the Pinega and Onega. Mezenskaya painting is a decorative and applied art. The beginning takes in the days of the Slavic tribes.
Mezenskaya painting. Discussion of primary sources
What gave rise to such a painting is unknown.Some historians say that the Mesensk painting is from Komi, others believe that the original source was the ancient Greeks with their drawings. At present it is difficult to establish, since hundreds of years have passed since its inception. Widespread recognition of art has been received since the beginning of 1904. Academician Rybakov found in the painting elements of Scythian culture. The rock paintings of Zaonezhye saw in it Zhegalova SK.
Acquisition of children to folk crafts
Familiarity of pre-school children with Mesenskfishing is an introduction to the culture and way of life of the northern peoples. When applying patterns and ornaments, the painting develops children's artistic taste, the vocabulary is enriched with the names of the ornament: rhombus, curl, zigzag, spiral, contour, etc. Children learn to draw simple geometric figures, animals.
Mezenskaya spinning wheel
Spinning wheels are products of the Mesensk craftsmen whothe first in ancient times were awarded a painting. Their uniqueness consisted not only in the refinement of the drawing, but also in form. They were made from a single piece of wood, and the bottom served as a root.
The face of each distaff was painted the same way:the upper part represented the sky, the middle - the earth, and the lower - the underground kingdom. In the sky there should be birds and a window for communication with higher powers. Obligatory elements were deer, horses, and a tree with a bird. In the last row, horses and deer were also depicted, but they were black. On the reverse side of the spinning wheel could be an inscription, for example, dedicated to a loved one, if the spinning wheel was a gift of the husband to his wife. Spinning wheel was also a necessary attribute of every northern girl. When girlish gatherings were going to gather, everyone put her spinning wheel so that her face could be seen, which was painted individually. When the girl got married and moved to live with her husband, the spinning wheel followed her and was called herself. The spinning wheel in the house was in a special position and was treated with respect and reverence.
Technique of painting
In those days, exclusively malethe population was engaged in such prestigious craft, as mesenskaya painting. The tradition was to inherit it. In the Mesenskaya painting there were always two colors: red and black. The first mesene drawings were painted with red clay and black soot, which were dissolved in larch resin. Wrote drawings with a wooden stick, feathers of birds or a brush made of human hair. The pattern was applied to the untreated wood, then the product was covered with linseed oil, and from this the tree became golden.
Since then, the technique of applying the Mesensk painting has not changed except for the implements of drawing. Currently, the advantage is given to the brush.
The ornament was not arbitrary, but symbolic. The interpretation of some characters has already been lost, but the technique has remained the same. All elements of the ornament are static and only because they are repeated many times, the figure shows dynamics and movement.
Mezenskaya painting, symbols, elements of an ornament
Symbols to their roots go into mythology and reflect the culture and vital values of the peoples of the North. The patterns are characterized by multi-tiered patterns, which indicates shamanic origin.
The earth in the figures is denoted by a straight line. If it is located below, then this earthly firmament, if above, then heavenly. The land in the Mesenskaya painting is of great importance, since it is fertility, protection, the mother's amulet. The graphic image of the earth in the figures is a square.
The water in the figure may be indicated by oblique lines. It has several meanings. Heavenly water, which irrigates the earth as rain. This life-giving moisture can be with hail. Can be depicted as a wavy line, near a straight line or near waterfowl.
Wind. The small short lines accompanying the ornament designate the wind or fresh air. This element is connected with mysticism and has a Divine origin. This is what exists, but it is invisible and intangible. In addition to divine significance, this symbol can also denote demonic images and represent destructive force. Like any wind, it can be light and pleasant, and can carry rage and destruction, but without it, earthly existence is impossible. This is the creative beginning. Mezenskaya painting depicts the wind as a subdued element in the form of dashes on crossed lines. This composition is similar to a windmill.
The value of the symbol "spiral"
In the opinion of Academician B. Rabakova, a spiral in the Mesenskaya painting refers to mythology. This is the sun that orbits. Mezenskaya painting abounds with a multitude of spirals, which are present throughout the drawing. They are everywhere: they revolve around animals and are present in ornament. Spiral can designate not only the sun, but also tornadoes, whirlpools and is the most common element of decor. Spirals are different. If the spiral is compressed,
Elements, symbolizing prosperity in the mural painting of the Mesensk craftsmen
Symbols and elements of the Mesensk painting, whichsymbolized prosperity, portrayed everywhere, wishing good for themselves. They were placed on the dishes, which foreshadowed never starving, on wedding attire, which meant being fertile and having a complete family. In general, the entire Mezen painting is devoted to abundance. This is expressed in the images of flowers, fruits, seeds. Sometimes used two-row, where the symbols were arranged in the order of the cells of the chessboard. The rhombus as a symbol of abundance was often located in the form of a continuous chain, which indicated the tree of life.
The meaning of the symbol "birds"
The bird is a popular sign, which means gifts anda harbinger of good news, especially if it sits on the top of a tree. The bird is perhaps the most common symbol used in the drawings of folk craftsmen. The northern peoples have a tradition of placing birds from a tree in the corner of their hut, which must necessarily be red (assumes an imaginary tree). Swans, geese, ducks signified deceased ancestors, who protect and help living relatives in a difficult moment.
Animals in Symbolism
In the drawings horses are usually placed opposite each other often with warring riders. Around the animals, solar symbols were often depicted.
Art of decorating with paints
Mezenskaya painting - arts and craftsart. In addition to spinning wheels, the Mezenskaya painting was used to decorate household utensils (boxes, spinning wheels, boxes, bowls, chests, buckets, cups, spoons, sieves). Mezensky products were painted in the springtime. Making them for sale was a great help in every household. The sparrows in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were painted in contrast to spinning wheels by large rosettes, consisting of ovals and circles. Inclined bands decorated hoops.
Mezen products are still highly appreciated todaylovers of folk art. The art of painting the master of the village of Selishche Ivan Fatyanov inherited his father. He skillfully painted the bowls and sold them with success. The oldest Russian dynasty masters of painting were the Aksenovs. Known as their craft Fedotov, Novikov, Shishkin, Kuzmin. The most outstanding artist, the artist whose painting did not leave anyone indifferent, because he put all his heart into his work, was Vasily Klymentyevich Fedotov, whose fellow-villagers called Vasya Klimovich.
Modern scientists who study mesensk products,consider the painting on them agrarian. This is indicated by numerous rectangles, which symbolize plowed arable land. In such animals as "duck" and horse, the signs of sunset and sunrise are recognized. In northern peoples, these animals have always been associated with the sun: the solstice, the horse-fire.
Mezensky products contain in the drawings an image of "chicken", which also decorated the roofs of houses along with horses. "The hens and the horse on the roof - in the house quieter," - a famous Slavic saying.
Palaschulskaya painting in our days
Now in the North in such cities as Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk, many souvenirs are made in the style of the Mesensk painting.
Modern Mezenskaya painting severaldiffers from the ancient. It has become not so graphical. It is softer. This is because the tool used to change the drawing has changed - the feathers have changed their brushes. Mezenskaya painting today has a different meaning. Now only symbols and images are used that do not speak so eloquently about the life of northern peoples.