Krylov's life years and biography in a number of articleshave gaps when it is not known what the playwright, journalist, fabulist was doing. He himself during his lifetime refused to edit his biography in a very abrupt form: "I read it; neither correct nor correct time nor hunting. " Is it because, for all its publicity, the fabulist himself and the years of Krylov's life are somewhat mysterious.
In the family of a modest Lieutenant Krylov at the beginningFebruary 1769 in Moscow the son Ivan was born. During the Pugachev rebellion, Vanyusha, four, lived with his mother in besieged Orenburg, and at that time his father defended the Yaitsk town and worried about the family. Pugachev promised to destroy not only the captain, but his family. In those years of Krylov's life, still a toddler, there was a fire of fires, and disturbing impulses. When the peasant war began to wane, the brave Maria Alekseevna went with her son to Yaik, to her beloved husband. Years of life Krylov in Yaitskaya fortress passed in skating in winter on the sled, watching how the adult Cossacks are engaged in the underwater fishing of sturgeons and sterlets. In the evenings, the father, who had a chest with books, read entertaining novels and instructive stories to his family.
In 1775, Ivan Krylov's father retired andwent with his family to his mother. Without money, Krylov himself taught his son a letter, and he read much and willingly. The boy walked a lot around the city, watching the lives of citizens and visiting debates in the seminary. There he first became acquainted with the performances, which on the stage were arranged by seminarians. In these sketches, ridicule was bribed, procrastination, and pettifogging. Here for the first time Ivan saw firsthand what satire is. In the streets he independently learned to speak a little Italian (many foreigners were in Tver) and play the violin. And in the house of the landowner Lvov he was allowed to study with teachers. And he began to study arithmetic, geometry and French. So the years of Krylov's life fled. And my father was very sick, there was almost no money. In addition, another son was born - Levushka. Krylov-father did not rise and soon died, leaving the family almost in poverty.
Mothers with two sons had to go to the capitalto work on a pension. In 1783, the teenager began to serve on the breech. At the age of 16, his literary talent first appeared: he wrote the libretto of the opera "The Coffee House". A year later appeared the drama "Cleopatra", and later - the tragedy "Philomel". At the same time he wrote the comic opera The Mad Family and the comedy The Writer in the Hallway Ivan Krylov, whose years of life can be described as prolific. But the young man is looking for himself. 90-ies of life, Krylov and personal life are marked by a sad event - his mother dies, and in the care of Ivan Andreevich remains the younger brother of Levushka. They tend to treat each other with tenderness.
His publication was preceded by the comedy "The Pranksters"in which the then leading playwright Ya. B. Knyazhnin recognized himself and his family. This caricature, which was not distinguished by complacency, greatly angered Yakov Borisovich and the theater directorate. However, Krylov does not lose heart, and begins to publish the magazine "Post of Spirits." Here, gradually manifested talent, marked by the sharp eye of a satirist. But the magazine has to close - too few subscribers.
The unfortunate groom
In 1791 after the massacre of Radishchev Krylovoppressed Petersburg, and when one of his friends invited him to go to Orel province, he gladly agreed. There, visiting various estates, a young 22-year-old metropolitan poet met a young girl Anna Alexeevna Konstantinova. He was seriously carried away, just fell in love and made an offer, but was refused, because he was too low-born and poor.
Publisher and journalist
Then he returned home and plunged headlong intopublishing business, which was opened on a share with Klushin and Plavilschikovym. Articles Krylov, who became more demanding of his style, in the magazine "Spectator" sparkled wit. He wrote an eastern fairy tale "Kaib", which is permeated with satire. Under the eastern garb of the viziers, grandees and dignitaries of Russia are guessed. The St. Petersburg fairy tale "Night" also strongly affected the court aristocrats, serf owners and odopists. "Spectator" chuckled at the craze for Western novels, sentimentalism. A strict observation was established for the magazine, and Krylov for the time being departed from literature and journalism.
Inactivity and the upcoming lack of moneythe young and earlier cheerful writer began to work. But once a deck of cards fell into his hands. From the gambling table, he got up with his burdened pockets. Gambling fascinated him, but at the gambling table, he watched a different, unfamiliar life. I went changing places: Yaroslavl, Tver, Tambov, Tula. Nizhny Novgorod ... Being at an age, Krylov recalled that he was fascinated not by gains, but by strong feelings. And memory was accumulating plots, images, epithets, comparisons. So were the years of the life of Krylov, Ivan Andreevich. He thought about himself and those around him - people who were killing time and energy for trifles and nonsense.
Return to Petersburg
It took place after the death of the hated Krylov.Catherine II, who in the last years of her reign choked every living thought. Accidentally on the street Krylov ran into Paul I, who took him for someone else and invited him to come in without embarrassment. Krylov took advantage of the invitation, and he was accepted by the empress. Witty and lively, moderately respectful, he liked Maria Feodorovna. But from the suffocating capital, Krylov left for the province again. Occasionally he published his articles and translations from Italian, French and German, which he had seriously studied by this time.
By 1805, many things happened in the life of Krylovchanges. He was a teacher of the children of Prince Golitsyn, served, wrote comedies, and in Moscow showed I. I. Dmitriev translations of La Fontaine's fables. Finally a 36-year-old writer found himself. And yet he continues to write plays. They had success, and he became a famous playwright, but he did not leave fables. So passed the years of the life of Krylov-fabulist. He is treated kindly by the authorities and is not offended financially. The government pays him high pensions, constantly raising them. For literary merit, he was approved by Academician under Nicholas I. If, at the beginning of his creative work, he relied on the plots of La Fontaine and Aesop, now the author begins to find topical sharp Russian plots, such as “The Swan, Cancer and Pike,” for example. And gradually he becomes the national writer whom everyone quotes. His popularity is great. Young Belinsky put him in the same row as Pushkin, Griboedov and Lermontov.
Biography and years of life of Krylov Ivan Andreevichenclosed in a rather long period of time - 75 years. We value this person for his mind, in which slyness and derision are mixed, for his lively and clear Russian syllable. He was able to ridicule the faults of Krylov in a subtle, acute and evil manner. The years of life and death (1769 - 1844) - the time is now stagnant in society, then enthusiasm, then again the pressure of the government on the thinking person.
Biography for children
Ivan Andreevich Krylov passed a long lifeway. He was born in a poor family. His father served thirty years to get the nobility and give it to the children. Ivan Andreevich did not see any tutors or schools. He received his first knowledge from his father, and then the years of Krylov Ivan Andreevich’s life — an example of constant self-education for children. He read a lot and became one of the most versatile personalities of his time. He independently learned Italian as a child, and as an adult German. He also knew French, since it was the accepted spoken language of the society of that time. Krylov wrote every year better and better, raising demands on himself. Ivan Andreevich lived during the reign of three emperors, who treated him with suspicion and with respect.