The architecture of China has a number of features. They are conditioned by many factors: social hierarchy, national color, natural and climatic conditions.
The symbols of the ancient Chinese architecturalart are considered such grandiose buildings as the Chinese Wall, the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven - large-scale, harmonious monuments of architecture.
For ancient buildings,constructions from a tree. The ground was piled with poles, connected by horizontal beams. Top of the construction of the roof, covering it with tiles. Between the pillars, walls were formed with the help of bricks and other materials. It should be noted that the carrier was only a skeleton. When an earthquake can collapse walls, but the house itself will stand. In addition, the tree is known for its elasticity and flexibility. This allows the material to withstand even the most serious tremors.
An example of such an extraordinary "endurance"is considered in Shanxi Province pagoda. The wooden structure was erected over 900 years ago. The height of the pagoda is more than 60 meters. For all its history, the structure survived several large enough earthquakes, but to this day it has remained in good condition.
The architecture of China is different ensembleprinciple of erection of structures. The architects created not separate buildings, but entire complexes. According to researchers, this trend may be related to the mentality of the Chinese - adherents of collectivism.
Construction in China has beenmethod. Thanks to this, the erection of structures could be carried out almost uninterruptedly. The Chinese, knowing in advance the reference dimensions of the building elements, made them separately. Then they simply collected the structures. So, the Forbidden City was built on this method. Construction of about 720 square meters. It took thirteen years.
The architecture of China was colorful buildings. From ancient times it was customary to decorate buildings.
The architecture of China was a special placeplanning. Thus, the architects adhered to the principle of "siheyuan" (a closed courtyard on four sides). This lay-out was used both in residential buildings, and in palace and temple buildings.
Special attention was paid to the construction of roofs,light, graceful, smoothly flying up. Such curved structures not only gave an attractive appearance, but, in accordance with feng shui, did not allow negative energy to accumulate in the corners.
The social hierarchy was a feature,which distinguished China. Architecture was one of the main elements that allowed to maintain the established structure. So, over time, various roof structures began to be formed, according to which the social position of the owner of the building was determined.
In the decoration of the roof there were various animal figures. All of them had their own meaning.
China is a multinational country. In addition to the most widespread nationality of Han, there are about 55 nationalities in the country, each of which contributed to the development of architecture.
Modern architecture of China is representedintricate TV towers, luxurious skyscrapers, theaters, stadiums. Residential complexes are spacious, thoughtful, comfortable. Chinese airports are unique works of modern architecture.
Today, buildings are distinguished by a variety of styles,freedom of form, which became the embodiment of the most daring ideas of architects and designers. Each skyscraper is unique. So on the roof of one high-rise building a lotus of concrete and glass can blossom, another structure looks like a spaceship, and the tip of the third changes its color in accordance with the time of day.