The answer to the question of what is prose, apparently,it is necessary to search in the sources of ancient literature. In the traditional literature of Ancient Greece, any artistic text was called poetry. In Greek art, the concept of beautiful, artistic, was firmly fused with rhythm. Therefore, most of the works of ancient Greek literature belonged to poetry. Later speech, organized rhythmically, was called "verse", in contrast to speech irregular. The successors and successors of ancient Greek culture, the ancient Romans, it was called "prose" (prōsa). What is the prose in Roman literature? This speech is free, not connected with rhythm and repetition.
It would seem that there is a clear criterion,differentiating concepts, but in fact everything is much more complicated. Prose and poetry do not have clear boundaries. There is frank prose, not having a rhythm, but broken into stanzas, like poetry, called "white verse." And, on the contrary, rhythmic, rhyme-strings, attributed by the author to prose, albeit rhythmic. So what is prose?
Among the works of ancient Greek literatureexcept poetry were prose genres of works of art, such as myth, fairy tale, tradition and comedy. They did not belong to poetry and to literature in general, because the myth served religion, the tale was a household genre, and the tradition was historical prose, comedy, ridiculing low-lying instincts, related to mundane entertainment. And scientific research works, speeches of speakers and politicians were genres of non-fiction prose.
It can be concluded that in the ancient,Roman, and then in European medieval culture, prose was valued below poetry. Prosaic genres were considered to be everyday or publicistic literature that does not have artistic value. While poetry was rated very highly and was considered an artistic ideal.
In the second half of the Middle Ages changes insociety led to new trends in literature. Gradually, poetry loses its privileged status. In connection with the active development of trade and industry, culture developed and other non-poetic genres became more interesting to other social strata, new forms appeared, such as novels and novels. With the development of prose, a novel is gradually being formed. The former favorites, high poetic genres, do not immediately lose their leading position, they give way to it gradually, and still remain in the literature.
In the nineteenth century, the question of what isprose. Prose writers become leading writers, their works are widely known and highly valued by society. They are notable figures of the literary process, the public listens to them. In the best prose works, they manage to rise to high generalizations, to which only the outstanding creators of odes, tragedies and poems could ascend in the epoch of the reign of poetry.
At the end of the XX century, along with art in generalthe literature becomes more complicated. It begins to compete with real life. Its goal is changing, it ceases to copy life and begins to model reality in its own way, creating a new model of literature. It is called the "literature of postmodernism."
Traditional literature expanded viewsreader about the world and the inner nature of man. Its goal was to have a positive impact on the individual and society, to improve the world and people, to ennoble the soul, to develop aesthetic and ethical qualities.
Modern Russian prose, like all today's proseliterature, does not aim at knowing and changing the world. In it tendencies to a game way of existence of the author are shown. According to many modern writers, literature, and prose in particular, have lost the right to teach someone life.