Painting of Ancient Egypt, like other speciesart, was constantly dependent on religious demands, which was reflected in its special development, which was of a cult nature. Traditionally, it is characterized by strict formalization, adherence to certain canonical schemes or artistic norms that developed back in the era of the Old Kingdom, under the first and second dynasties. Thus, the figure of a person was depicted in a profile (rather, the head and lower body are in profile, and the eyes and shoulders are in the front). On the other hand, it should be said about the high degree of realism, which prevails in the depiction of objects of nature, agricultural and other practical activities of man. The main colors used by ancient Egyptian artists are white, red, blue, black, yellow, silver and green.
At first glance it may seem that paintingAncient Egypt has remained unchanged for thousands of years, but it is not. It developed and changed depending on how the society itself developed and changed. And even in the strict framework of canonical art, some art schools and individual masters displayed their creative ideas.
In general, the image of a person from the point of view offull face and profile is one of the main features of Egyptian art. Painting of Ancient Egypt is characterized by complex images of most of the identification signs and parts of a person that were more detailed than the image of any realistic pose, since they helped Ka (or ku), the second shell of a person representing his energy twin or twin soul and dwelling in a tomb, unmistakably learn the deceased and settle into it. Therefore, the portrait resemblance of a pictorial or sculptural image was very important. In theory, the mummy was supposed to be a haven for Ka, but if it was damaged, it would fit into the image. When people were portrayed, their social position was taken into account. It was described by elements such as costume, headgear, ceremonial accessories that were in the hands of the person depicted. In other words, the painting of Ancient Egypt, which is an extremely interesting and vivid example of art, was guided solely by the representation of images.
Most of the paintings (in temperatechnique) were painted on a stone or plaster, consisting of layers of gypsum, straw and clay. As a rule, artists worked in groups under the guidance of masters. The masters made contours and details of future images, and the artists painted them. They painted pigments, which were obtained as a result of various chemical processes, they were all very symbolic. As in medieval Europe, Egypt's painting did not refer to a specific type of human activity - craft or art. In other words, if you perceive an Egyptian artist in the modern concept, he did not represent a creative person. Therefore, it is impossible to name the names of some specific artists, famous for their outstanding achievements.
Given the extreme religiosity of the Egyptiancivilization, most of the themes in the painting are associated with images of gods and goddesses, the pharaohs were one of them. Such an artistic rule, as a linear perspective, did not exist in the representation of Egyptian artists. The main emphasis was on the size of the figure, the larger it was, the higher was the social status of the person depicted.
A kind of cultural revolution took place incountry during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten). Incredible religious reform, which consisted in the commitment to monotheism (monotheism), conducted by Akhenaten, made radical changes in art. It became naturalistic, dynamic. Portraits of the Egyptian nobility were no longer idealized, and some of them were even caricatured. But after Akhenaten's death, everything returned to the old traditions, characterizing in general Ancient Egypt. Art was still determined by conservative values and strict order down to the Hellenistic era.