The architecture of a modern PC islogical organization, structure and resources, that is, the mechanisms of the computer system. The latter can be allocated for a certain time interval for the information processing process.
Rules for building a personal computer
The basis of a modern computer is the principles of PC architecture, formulated by John Neumann:
1. Program management. It consists of a group of commands that the processor executes automatically (one after another in a certain sequence).
2. Homogeneity of memory. Programs and other data are stored in one memory section. The same actions are performed on both data and commands.
3. Targetedness. The main memory consists of numbered sectors (cells).
Building a personal computer
The classical architecture of PCs is built onthe above principles. It determines the working conditions, information connections, interconnection of the main logical nodes of the personal computer. These include external and main memory, the central processing unit and peripheral devices.
A personal computer is structurally implemented inas the main system unit. Peripherals are attached to it through dedicated connectors. The architecture of the PC contains the following main components: motherboard, power supply, hard magnetic and optical drives, interfaces for additional and external devices. In turn, the motherboard (system) board contains a microprocessor, a clock pulse generator, a mathematical coprocessor and memory chips. And also a timer, controllers of peripheral devices, video and sound card.
The architecture of the PC is based on the modular-backboneprinciple. This rule allows the user to independently complete the required configuration of the personal computer, as well as (if necessary) to modernize it. The convenience of modular organization of the system lies in the backbone principle of data exchange. Controllers of all devices interact with RAM and microprocessor through the main transmission line of information, which is called the "system bus." It is made in the form of a printed bridge on the motherboard. The system bus is the main interface of the computer, and the entire architecture of the PC is built around it. It is this element that allows all devices to communicate and pair with each other. The system bus produces three directions of data transfer:
- between the main memory and the microprocessor;
- Between the input and output ports of external devices and the processor;
- between ports and main memory.
The external devices of the personal computer provide the latter with the environment: control objects, users and other computers.
The main functional characteristics of the PC:
1. Speed, performance, clock speed.
2. The width of the code bus of the interfaces and the microprocessor.
3. Types of local and system controllers.
4. The size of RAM.
5. Hard disk capacity.
6. Presence, size and types of cache memory.
7. Type of video adapter.
8. Type of multimedia audio.
10. Hardware compatibility with other personal computers.
11. Ability to work the machine in the computer network, as well as multitasking.