Anyone who has decided to study the electronic devicecomputer, necessarily collides with the term "computer architecture." A complete definition of it can not be given, since the concept is too generalizing and everyone considers it from the point of view of the tasks being solved. For example, in one case, in the description, special attention is paid to the software component (command, registers, memory), and in the other - to the hardware component, which includes the components of the device and the way they interact. Since the average computer owner is more likely to be interested in the components, rather than the teams, then we will consider the question from this side.
The computer architecture is a way of organizing the interaction of the components that make up the computer. To simplify understanding, descriptions of key characteristics of key components are often provided.
All modern computers are based onThe principles of data processing proposed by John von Neumann in 1946. A distinctive feature is a cyclic way of performing a process, in which the operands and data are placed in the same memory block. By the way, it is this fact that explains why the von Neumann computer architecture (Neumann) is used in all modern computers. However, attempts to depart from it have been undertaken for a long time.
But back to the devices that determine howlooks the architecture of a personal computer. Although many sources are called a central processing unit (CPU), however, this is highly controversial with respect to classical computer systems.
The main element, indirectly allowingdetermine which computer architecture is used, is the motherboard. On it are the communication lines (buses) between all the components that connect to the motherboard (and each other) through connectors and ports. There are no universal motherboards, since each of them is designed to work with a very specific class of processors.
The central processor is the computing core of allcomputer. It is represented by a large microcircuit with billions of transistors inside, forming functional blocks. Any program running for execution is unnoticeable to the user converted (interpreted) into machine code and executed exactly on the central processor. The architecture of the computer is largely determined by the type of CPU.
The interface bus, as already noted, is physically represented by communication lines. In accordance with the direction of signal transmission provides the interaction:
- CPU and RAM modules;
- between the ports of the connected external devices andrandom access memory. There is a mechanism that allows components to work with system memory using a special controller, bypassing the CPU;
- between the ports of the motherboard and the CPU.
RAM is a necessary partany computing device, even the simplest calculator. In computers, memory transistors are implemented in microcircuits soldered to a strip of textolite with a series of copper sliding contacts. Each strip is inserted into the corresponding connector of the motherboard. The CPU class defines a supported generation of RAM modules. For example, if the Intel Core2Duo processor is designed to work with DDR2 memory, the subsequent Core assumes the use of only DDR3.
In addition to operational, there is a fundamentally different kind of memory. It is represented, first of all, by devices on magnetic disks (hard disks).
In addition to internal components, there isa huge number of external devices. Only thanks to them it is possible to ensure the interaction of man and machine. For example, a monitor, a mouse, a keyboard, a touchscreen, as well as a scanner, printer, etc. - all these are external devices, without which the computer would remain a simple metal box, a thing in itself.
This work gives only a general idea of the architecture of the computer. More detailed information on the components can be found on the Internet.