Intangible assets of an enterprise may includein itself a unique software, the results of research and design work, trade brands and brands, much more. Client databases, the name of printed publications, the costs of training employees and the development of new industries
are not NMA - intangible assets.
The concept of intangible assets was introduced forindependent accounting for these objects. There is a possibility that the company will receive future economic benefits from such assets. Their value can be estimated with a high degree of probability under IAS 38, subject to the following
- future economic benefits from intangible assets can be separated from the benefits that are derived from the company's business reputation;
- intangible assets of the enterprise are obtained as a result of a certain economic operation;
- the asset can be separated, that is, sell it, lease it, distribute the benefits.
The economic benefits of using assets are
in a net cash inflow, which includes cost savings or
increase in incomes.Intangible assets of the enterprise can be controlled by prohibiting access to other companies to this resource, as well as registration of the right to receive economic benefits in the future.
Valuation of intangible assets of an enterprise
Initially, an asset is valued at cost,it is absolutely unimportant, was created independently or purchased from a third-party organization. All subsequent costs are considered expenses if they restore the original use standards. Economic
Benefits that exceed the initial standard results from the use of
assets, are the capitalization of costs. Under capitalization is implied
an increase in the cost of an asset and the attribution of costs to it.
Intangible assets of the enterprise can be accounted for by the method
of the original cost. In this case, accounting is based on cost
less accumulated losses and depreciation. Revalued cost method
assets is based on the amount of revaluation minus accumulated impairment losses.
This method is applied in the presence of a dynamic market for sales of this type
assets. Having chosen such a method of accounting, an enterprise, according to IFRS, must be regularly
reassessments in order to prevent the formation of significant
the difference between the fair value and the carrying amount.
Intangible assets produced by the enterpriseindependently, must pass the stage of scientific research and development. The research phase consists of activities aimed at obtaining new data, searching for and evaluating ways to use the results. At this stage, there is also a search for new technologies, raw materials, alternative materials, services or systems. Then, the formulation, evaluation and final selection of acceptable alternatives takes place.
The development phase is the design,designing and testing of experimental models and samples. At this stage, templates, tools, stamps and forms are created, which are provided by the new technology.
When creating intangible assets, all the costs of research
stages are included in the costs. Development costs are taken into account in case of availability
technical ability to complete the creation of an asset for its use
or sales in the future. When creating assets, their future
depreciation, which is a systematic allocation of the value of an asset
over the period of its useful service.