The eighth hundredth anniversary of Moscow fell on a difficultpost-war time. The country was just beginning to recover after the fascist invasion. However, it was on this day that the construction of Stalin skyscrapers in Moscow was started.
The USSR Council of Ministers in 1947 adopted a resolution on the erection of eight high-rise buildings in Moscow. Of course, this decree was issued with the approval and even, perhaps, on the initiative of Stalin.
The laying of foundations took place simultaneously, inone day, on the day of the celebration of the anniversary of the capital - September 7. An hour earlier on the Soviet Square was laid a monument to Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow. There is no doubt that these events were intended to testify that, as Yuri Dolgoruky once founded the Russian capital, on the day of its 800th anniversary, he blesses it with a new significant, perhaps epochal, period in its history .
Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow were planned as the embodiment of the power of a huge country and the entire Soviet people. By the way, they were built in some other cities of the Soviet Union and the socialist countries.
A grandiose idea
According to some reports, the original idea ofThe construction of high-rise buildings in Moscow was even more grandiose. Eight high-rise buildings were to become a worthy environment of an even more impressive structure - the Palace of Soviets, crowned by the monumental figure of the leader of the proletariat - VI. Lenin. However, the project was not destined to materialize.
Although the beginning was laid to him. Moreover, the church of Christ the Savior was demolished, on the site of which the construction of the Palace of Soviets began.
The team of architects under the guidance of B.M. Iofan.
On the monumentality of the projected building spokeat least that only the inner volume of the palace could accommodate the three pyramids of Cheops. The figure of Lenin was supposed to reach 100 meters. And the total height of the Palace of Soviets together with the monument was planned at 420 meters. At that time there were no higher buildings in the world.
Construction began in 1937. Before the war, even managed to build the foundation of the building of metal with a height of ten-story house. However, the war not only interrupted the construction, but also forced to dismantle the metal structures and send them to the construction of objects more necessary for the defense of the capital: bridges and barrier structures.
Completion of the monumental object did not happen. In its foundation for a long time the swimming pool functioned, and in the 1990s the Cathedral of Christ the Savior was restored on this site.
But Stalin's high-rise buildings in Moscow were still built.
The highest skyscraper
On the Vorobyovy Gory there was built the highestStalin's skyscraper - the main building of Moscow State University. It was built four years - from 1949 to 1953. The architects worked on the project: S.E. Chernyshev, L.V. Rudnev, P.V. Abrosimov, V.V. Nasonov and A.F. Boars.
There is information that 40 thousand tons of steel were needed to build the frame of the building, and 175 million bricks for the walls. The weight of a star mounted on a high-rise spire is about 12 tons.
The height of the main building of the Moscow State University reaches 236 meters, the building has 36 floors. For him, 68 elevators and high-speed cabs were made.
At the construction of high-rises there were manyprisoners who were promised early release when the building was built. To live the builders near the object was organized settlement Solntsevo. Now it has become one of the districts of the capital.
In the post-Soviet period implausiblestories, like mushrooms, overgrown Stalinist skyscrapers in Moscow: the mysticism in them prevails over reality. For example, they tell about secret corridors that approach each living room and are built to overhear conversations of people. And about the building of Moscow State University there were legends about the fact that it goes to the ground as much as it rises above the ground. In his basement building planned to place the center of the missile defense of the capital.
Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow were built in differentdistricts of the capital. So, the high-rise apartment house has grown on the Ploshchad Vosstaniya. Once upon a time in its place was the village of Kudrino. Now the square returned the old name - Kudrinskaya.
The construction of the high-rise began in 1948, andended in 1954. Its height was 156 meters. The building had 24 floors (in the central part), the side extensions consisted of 18 floors. The house was designed for 450 apartments.
The building was designed by architects A.A. Mndoyants and M.V. Posokhin.
For the postwar period, this apartment house was trulyluxurious: marble staircases, high-speed elevators, spacious vestibules, rooms with high ceilings ... Apartments in this high-rise went to the aviation industry workers, namely - test pilots, astronauts, aircraft designers, so he was nicknamed "Aviator's House". However, both party workers and actors lived here.
The house also housed a store, a cinema, underground garages and much more.
Vysotka without a star
The Foreign Ministry building was built according to the projectarchitects Minkus and V.G. Gelfreich. It opened seven Stalinist skyscrapers of Moscow, as it was erected first. The building towered 172 meters in Smolenskaya-Sennaya Square, consisted of 27 floors, equipped with 28 elevators, most of which were high-speed.
In the original plan, the first building did not havespire. However, in this form it did not like Stalin. And, as the legend says, he instructed him to finish it urgently. Some difficulties were associated with this, primarily because of the additional burden. Therefore, the spire was installed to a greater extent decorative, made of steel sheets. Naturally, there was no question of any star (the spire could not stand it any longer). Therefore, on the building at an altitude of 114 meters, the coat of arms of the USSR was built.
By the way, today in the Stalin high-rise is not only the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but also the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade of the Russian Federation.
The second in height - "Ukraine"
Building construction began in 1953, it wasfinished in 1957, already under Khrushchev. However, and originally there was thinking about the hotel. Here is only the name for it, Khrushchev chose another. After all, Ukraine is his homeland.
The building was built according to the project of the architects A.G. Mordvinova and V.K. Oltarzhevsky on Kutuzovsky Prospekt. The height without a spire reaches 198 meters, the spire adds another 8 meters. In the high-rise - 34 floors.
Tour of Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow, of coursethe same will not bypass the "Ukraine". At least because it contains a diorama, or a Moscow model of 1977. It was made for the National Exhibition in America, and it was ordered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The diorama is executed very skillfully and represents the historical center of Moscow almost thoroughly.
The hotel from 2005 to 2010 underwent a major overhaul, it was done by new owners. After that the hotel became known as "RadissonRoyalHotel".
House of the creative intelligentsia
The construction of the house began before the war (1938-1940), and ended in 1952. Architects - A.K. Rostkovsky and D.N. Chechulin.
The building had 32 floors, and its height reached 176 meters. It was decorated with turrets and sculptural groups. It was located in a very beautiful place - at the confluence of the Moskva River and Yauza.
It is not new that Stalin's skyscrapers in Moscow were partially built by prisoners. There was already talk about the building of the Moscow State University. The house on Kotelnicheskaya embankment also built "zeks."
Perhaps, according to the idea of the government immediately buildingshould have a different purpose. On this occasion, too, various legends. However, after the erection, the house was given to the creative intelligentsia. At different times there lived Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Galina Ulanova, Andrei Voznesensky, Faina Ranevskaya, Lyudmila Zykina, Nona Mordyukova and many other famous personalities. So the house was elite.
On the ground floor there was a post office, a bakery, a cinema.
At the height of the Garden Ring
Since this Stalinist skyscraper was builtat the highest point of the Garden Ring, then, despite its smaller size compared to other buildings, it looks very impressive and visually inferior to others.
The building was built according to the project of architects B.S. Mezentseva and A.N. Dushkin. It was an administrative-residential building of 138-meter height. He was crowned with a tiered tent.
Construction of a skyscraper in the Red Gate Squarethere were some difficulties. The deepest metro station was also built there, and one wing of the building was to be located above the station. It was not easy for architects. But they did everything as needed, using ingenious ideas: both the freezing of the foundation pit, and the erection of the building at an incline (when the foundation was defrozen, the building leveled off).
Administrative building in Soviet timeswas occupied by the Ministry of Transport Engineering. Now there are offices of the corporation "Transstroy". Mikhail Lermontov was born in the residential building, which was located on the site of Stalin's high-rise building.
The most "miniature" - hotel "Leningradskaya"
Hotel "Leningradskaya" in height (136 meters)is inferior to other skyscrapers, but it surpasses all others in interior decoration. It combines elements of ancient Russian architecture and temple architecture. For the interior were used rare stone rocks, huge crystal chandeliers, relief with the image of St. George the Victorious, forged doors, sculptures ... Architects of the building - LM. Polyakov and A.B. Boretsky.
The hotel, which is now called "HiltonMoscowLeningradskaya", organizes special tours.
The hotel is located near the Komsomolskaya Square, it is also called the "Square of three stations" (Kazan, Yaroslavl and Leningrad).
Addresses of Stalin high-rise buildings in Moscow are not necessaryknow for sure. The landmarks are Vorobyovy Gory, Kudrinskaya Square, Kotelnicheskaya Embankment, Kutuzovsky Prospekt, Red Gate Square, Kalanchevskaya Street and Arbat Street.
Was there an eighth high-rise?
On the jubilee day of Moscow, eight buildings were laid. The administrative building, which was planned to be built in Zaryadye (architect Dmitry Chechurin), did not have time to erect. By 1953, only a stylobate was ready.
After the death of Stalin, construction was conserved. Later, in the sixties, in its place was built the hotel "Russia", which was then demolished.
So how many Stalinist skyscrapers in Moscow? Seven. And each of them deserves special attention. It's the history of the capital.