What is Parliament? At first glance, it's a very simple question. However, a lot of social polls show that many of our fellow citizens, with a more detailed explanation, begin to get confused and do not quite clearly understand the peculiarities peculiar to this concept. So let's figure out what parliament is. When and why it arose, what is its essence. And whether there is an alternative to this concept in the modern world.
What is Parliament? History of occurrence
Such an organ existed in antiquity. So the Senate of the Roman Republic was the first such full-fledged governing body. However, the prototype of the parliament can be called the Greek Areopagus, various councils of elders or military councils. In the Middle Ages, the council of nobility was a kind of advisory body under the monarch. General states in France, Boyar Duma or Zemsky Sobor in the Moscow State, Cortes in Spain, Landsras in some German lands. The powers of parliament in different epochs of European history (this is the brainchild of Europe) have changed significantly. In the period of strengthening monarchical power, the so-called absolutism, the councils of nobility of many countries have become merely advisory bodies that do not have any significant influence on the country's policy. And even completely abolished the king. Its parliament was born in the New Time, when in Europe the doctrines of civil rights and the people as the bearer of the highest state power were spreading. In the conditions of democratization of societies, they again needed, as in Greek policies, a representative authority. It became the parliament, which received the legislative power at its disposal. The concept of a regularly re-elected council of deputies as a representative body from all categories of the population has become so popular that in the 20th century it spread throughout the globe.
How to be without parliament today?
What is Parliament and what it is like today?
However, the absolute majority of modernstates have a parliamentary system. Although there are differences here. Thus, a number of European countries have a bicameral legislative council. Most often, it is rather a tribute to the distinguished aristocratic families who sit in the upper chamber. In England, for example, this is the so-called House of Lords. Elections to parliament of this higher chamber are not provided at all. It consists of appointed for life and hereditary representatives. The powers of the House of Lords, however, are also small. And they are in the consideration of the bills of the lower chamber and the possible imposition of a veto or postponement. In the US there is also a bicameral parliament. However, here the chambers have nothing to do with tradition. The Senate and the House of Representatives are distinguished by their powers. And they are created as an additional lever in order to avoid usurpation of power. Most of today's deputy councils have only one chamber and are legislative bodies. Although in special cases they have different powers regarding the government or the president. So in Italy, the president is elected by the Chamber of Deputies, and in Spain, King Juan Carlos himself forms the government. Unlike the Spanish, the Ukrainian parliament has the authority to form the Cabinet of Ministers.