The market mechanism is complex and very dynamicstructure, which depends on a huge number of factors: the level of inflation, the relationship between supply and demand, the activity of its participants, government regulation and, of course, the state of the economy as a whole. At the same time, the last element plays one of the most important roles in the healthy development of the entire society.
The formation of a modern economy wasthe impact of a large number of schools and exercises. Institutional, neoclassical, Marxist, Keynesian, mercantilistic and other directions have made a huge contribution to what is now called the economy and market relations. The theories and reflections of ancient philosophers encouraged medieval thinkers to strive to find answers to all questions concerning the relationship between the buyer, the seller and the state.
So, Montchretien is the founder of the school of mercantilism- for the first time introduced such a notion as political economy. Part of this term appeared during Xenophon's lifetime. It was the ancient Greek writer and politician who introduced the word "economy", which meant "laws of housekeeping". Mercantilists began to consider this concept in a more global sense - in relation not only to the family, but also to the state. Therefore, Montchretien in his treatise and introduced the term "political economy". If translated word for word, it means "public or state management of the economy."
Gradually, this expression began to grow all overgreat meaning and expand the boundaries of its meaning. And, as a consequence, political economy has grown into a separate science. Such scientists and thinkers of the classical school as Smith, Ricardo, Quesnay, Boisguilberg, Turgot, Petit and others began to analyze not only the sphere of circulation, but also the sphere of production itself. This is what allowed us to consider the internal patterns of the functioning of a complex market mechanism and gave grounds for the formation of such a new science as political economy.
Thanks to the representatives of the classical school, the labor theory of value was initiated.
It is the English classical politicaleconomy was the basis of one of the Marxist teachings. However, not only the socialist school is based on the teachings of Ricardo and Quesnay - in the 30s of the 19th century in Britain and France, the science that has been modified and contradicted by the theory of classics develops. She renounces the already familiar theory of labor value and names quite different sources of it - land, labor and capital. Scientists such as Say, Malthus and Bastia do not consider the laws of production development, but rely solely on economic phenomena. This theory was called "vulgar political economy".