The Turan tiger, whose photo is in thisarticle is considered almost extinct. On the whole planet in recent times there are very few predators of this species. Thirty years ago there were no more than two thousand tigers. In recent decades, their number has increased somewhat - to 3,500. Scientists all over the world have set themselves the task of doubling their number by 2022.
Where did the name of the tiger come from
The name of the Turanian tiger went from the ancientthe designation of certain regions of Central Asia. Many scientists call this predator Caspian, because it meets at the borders of Afghanistan, Iran and Transcaucasia.
Ally of the Turanian tiger
During the struggle for survival in the Turanian tigerwas a tiny ally - a malarial mosquito. The bite of this insect caused whole epidemics in humans. And while humanity has not learned how to cope with malaria, Turan predator did not touch the habitat, and they did not hunt there. After the foci of the disease were eliminated, the tigers again began to kill in very large numbers.
The Turan tiger has long been listed in the Red Data Book. His habitat was previously wide. The predator met in the foothills of the Tien Shan, on the western valleys of the Central Asian rivers - the Syr Darya, the Amudarya, Chuya, Vakhsh, Atrek, Murgab, Pyanju and Tengzhen, as well as in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and the Caucasus itself.
The Turan tiger in Iran lived in the Caspianprovinces Astrabad, Mazandean and Gilan. They are located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. To the south, the tiger reached only Mount Elbrus. And on the Iranian uplands this predator no longer occurs.
Favorite places The habitat near the rivers near the Turanian tiger wasreed thickets. Predators felt great in the woods, and often arranged their homes in impassable thickets, where people find it difficult to reach.
But in any case for the tiger's habitatseveral conditions were necessary. The first is water, as these predators often drink a lot. The second is the abundance of food (wild boar, roe deer, etc.) Turanian tiger where lives in winter? Now we'll find out. This time of year for predators was heavy. Especially if there were a lot of snow and drifts. Therefore, they tried to arrange their own lair in places protected from snow.
Jolbars is also a Turanian tiger. So it was called in Central Asia. In Kazakh, "jol" means the way. A "leopard" - a tramp. The translation turns out to be a "wandering leopard". And the name quite corresponded to the turanian tiger. Sometimes he was very fond of wandering. Moreover, he often frightened people with his unexpected appearance, where he had never been seen before. The Turanian tigers could escape from their native places for thousands of kilometers. For a day could easily run and ninety kilometers.
Description of the turan tiger
The Turanian tigers were more than two meters long. Females are somewhat smaller. The weight of a tiger could reach two hundred and forty kilograms. The color is bright red, with narrow and frequent strips and longer than that of his brethren. Strips could be not only black, but also brown. In winter, the fur of the Turanian tiger became thicker, silky. Especially on the belly and scruff. The predator wore magnificent whiskers.
The movements of the tiger were very smooth, despitepowerful physique. The jumps were six meters in length. The Turanian tigers were very graceful. Due to their protective coloring, they were beautifully camouflaged, especially in reed thickets. And in the forest the predator could get close to the victim almost imperceptibly.
His jumping was rapid. Virtually none of the animals could resist after the attack of the beast weighing two centners. And during the jump his bands merged so that he seemed gray. The life cycle of tigers is fifty years.
The Turanian tiger fed on wild boars, roe deer,kulans, saigas and gazelles, attacking them near the watering hole. He liked to hunt Bukhara deer. If the tiger was very hungry, then he could eat a reed cat or jackal. But carrion fed only in the most extreme case. He preferred fresh meat.
If it was not possible to catch large game, he did not disdain rodents, frogs, turtles, birds and even insects. Periodically, he enjoyed the fruits of sea buckthorn and loch. Sometimes I caught fish in shallow water.
The reasons for the disappearance of the Turanian tigers
The main reason for the reduction and almost completedisappearance of the Turanian tiger - the persecution of this beast by man. He was murdered for hundreds of years not for the danger that he supposedly represented for a person. The Turanian tiger attracted hunters with a beautiful hide that was very valuable. Sometimes predators were killed even for fun.
Before settlers arrived in Central Asiaresidents quite peacefully co-existed with living near tigers. People tried to avoid predators, they did not come across eyes and for no reason they never attacked.
The second reason for the decrease in the number of the Turanian tiger is the depletion of the source of food. The number of wild herbivores gradually decreased. And this is the main food for large and powerful predators.
The third reason - the destruction of human flora andfauna in the habitat of tigers. People cut down forests to cultivate fields. For the same purpose, thickets near rivers were destroyed. Yes, and the elimination of foci of malaria also played an important role.
Where can I find a turian tiger now?
The Turan tiger is listed in the Red Data Book asan endangered species. People are to blame for this, although for them he was of no great danger and did not represent. The last tigers were seen in the last century, in the late 1950s. It was necessary to bring this predator into the Red Book much earlier, in order to restore the natural abundance of the predator.
There is evidence that the last time he was seen in1968 in the Amudarya region. Therefore, there is a possibility that the Turanian tiger is still alive. Just the number of its already narrowed so much that it was a rare opportunity to see it.
S.W. Stroganov studied these animals for a long time and watched them. He completed the description of the Turanian tigers by saying that it is possible to live for many years in the habitat of these predators, but never to see them, since they are very secretive, sensitive and bold.
Turan tiger in Pakistan may meetonly in the western mountainous region. The area is covered with forests and borders with Afghanistan. This area is one of the less accessible to humans. And, accordingly, it is safer for the Turanian tigers.
Tigers and Gladiators
Currently, the Turanian tiger is an endangered species. But earlier its number was much larger. These animals were even used in gladiatorial battles. Tigers were caught in Armenia and Persia. Then, bringing to Rome, predators were trained for bloody duels. The Turanian tigers fought not only with their kinsmen, but also with lions.
In Rome, they tried to arrange a battle of predators with slaves-gladiators. The first turanian tiger was killed in a cage. Slaves gladiators flatly refused to fight with this predator, such a fear he evoked from them.
Attempts to save the Turanian tigers
Save the turan tiger as a species tried inmany countries. For eighteen years, the tiger Teresa lived in the Moscow zoo. This was a gift of the Iranians to the Soviet ambassador in 1926. But the tigress did not live longer than eighteen years.
Iran established a special reserve for protectionTuranian tigers. Its area is 100 thousand hectares. But for the free and full life of a predator, a natural area of 1,000 square meters is needed. km. And the breeding and preservation of the Turanian tigers is also complicated by the fact that these animals are lovers of wandering.
The lair of the turan tiger
One of the zoologists managed to find and investigatethe lair of the Turanian tiger. To reach him, the scientist had to crawl along the trail of the predator almost two hundred meters. This road was a natural tunnel from dense thickets of vegetation. The tiger's lair, covered with crushed grass, was always in the shadow of trees. To the place of dwelling there was always a playground of area up to forty square meters. It was littered with animal bones. The smell in this place was very sharp and stinky.
Turan Tiger: retroinduction
In Kazakhstan it is planned to create in the near futurethe future natural reserve "Ili-Balkhash". Under it will be allocated up to 50 000 hectares for retroinduction of the Turanian tiger. The program will be attended by Russia with Kazakhstan and the World Wildlife Society. The project is planned to be implemented in twenty-five years. Will the population and number of the Turanian tiger be restored - a matter of time, complex actions and financing.