Progressive block - a unique phenomenon in historynational parliamentarism. This is the first example, when irreconcilable parties in many issues came out as a united front against the country's slide into the abyss of an economic and political crisis. In the difficult conditions of the ongoing World War I, the liberal public attempted to share responsibility with the autocracy, but Nicholas II did not want to make any serious concessions, which ultimately led to the loss of the supreme power and the collapse of the Russian Empire.
Progressive block: background of creation
Creation of the Progressive bloc in the StateDuma - a natural result of the socio-economic and political events that took place at that time in the country. Russia's accession on August 1, 1914, in the world war caused a very vivid outburst of enthusiasm throughout the country. Representatives of practically all factions of the State Duma did not stay aside. Regardless of their political views, both the Cadets, the Octobrists, and the Trudoviks showed their full support to the government of Nicholas II and called upon the people to rally in the face of the danger threatening the Homeland.
However, this unanimity was short-livedflash. The war dragged on, instead of the promised victories and the annexation of the "ancient Constantinople," the army suffered a number of sensitive defeats. The voice of the Bolsheviks, who were not represented in the Duma, became more and more audible, accusing Nicholas II of starting the war in the interests of large industrialists and financiers and calling for the soldiers to deploy weapons to overthrow the monarchy. These appeals took place against the background of the deteriorating economic situation in the country and the "ministerial leapfrog" in the higher echelons of power. The formation of the Progressive Bloc under these conditions has become de facto the last possibility of peaceful reforms to preserve stability in the country.
Process of creation
Beginning of the unification process put congressesa number of parties that passed during June-July 1915. Despite the fact that there were very significant differences between the same Cadets and the Octobrists, they almost unanimously declared that the situation inside the country as a result of defeats on the fronts began to deteriorate rapidly. To stabilize the situation, it was proposed to unite the efforts of the liberal forces and to seek from the emperor the creation of a government responsible not only to him, but also to the deputies. On August 22, between the six factions of the State Duma and three - the State Council, an agreement was signed that went down in history as the Progressive Bloc.
Features of the staffing of the Progressive Unit
Very interesting is the composition of this politicalassociation. Formally, the largest faction included in it was the "Union of October 17", but the very cautious policy of this association led to the fact that its representatives were more likely to compromise with the authorities than to make any tough demands. Therefore, representatives of the Cadet Party headed by Pavel Milyukov quickly came to the forefront. Constitutional Democrats saw the creation of the Progressive Bloc as an important step on Russia's way to a real constitutional monarchy. The Cadets actively used the possibilities of unification to retransmit their program requirements, as well as to actively involve representatives of other parties in their ranks.
The Progressive bloc also included representatives ofsuch factions as Zemstvo-Octobrists, nationalists standing on a progressive platform, centrists and progressives. In all, 236 deputies entered the new Duma in the State Duma, and if we add to them the deputies of the State Council, we will get a very impressive figure of three hundred people. Formal leader was elected one of the leaders of the "Union of October 17" Meller-Zakomelsky, the bureau of the block included 25 people, of which the most active were Milyukov, Efremov, Shidlovsky and Shulgin.
Progressive bloc in the State Duma: program and basic requirements
The program of a new politicalThere were several key provisions in the State Duma. First, it is the resignation of the acting Cabinet of Ministers and the creation of a new government that will not only enjoy the confidence of the majority of representatives of the deputy corps, but is also ready to share responsibility with the "progressists". Secondly, the creation of a program of action with the new Government aimed at preserving social peace in the country and a clear division of powers between civil and military power. Finally, third, the creation of the Progressive bloc in the Duma, in the opinion of its founders, was to become a guarantee for the observance of the rule of law in the country.
Of the specific activities that the leaders of the newpolitical education offered to hold in the very near future, it is worth noting the solution of the national issue in the country. Thus, it was proposed to equalize the rights of other Jews with Jews, grant broad autonomy to Poland and Finland, and restore the population of Galicia to rights. In addition, the Progressive Bloc in the State Duma almost immediately after its formation raised the issue of amnesty for political prisoners and the resumption of activity of trade unions before the Government. However, even the formulation of these demands aroused strong opposition not only from the Council of Ministers, but also from representatives of monarchist factions in the Duma.
Crisis and completion of activities
Progressive block was quite motleycomposition, which predetermined serious friction among its participants. The culmination of the activities of this association was the appearance in August 1916 of a number of its representatives against the Government and its head Stürmer. The harsh criticism that he was subjected to, in particular, by P. Miliukov, forced the head of the Council of Ministers to resign, but the cardinally governmental line did not change. This, in turn, gave rise to serious contradictions between the moderate wing of the bloc and the more radical "progressives". After a series of discussions, the last in December 1916 left the Progressive Bloc. A few weeks remained until the February Revolution.
Creation of the Progressive bloc in the StateThe Duma seemed to give a chance for a peaceful overcoming in the country of economic and political crises caused by Russia's failures in the First World War. However, the unpreparedness of the tsarist government to make serious concessions, coupled with internal contradictions within the bloc itself, did not allow these opportunities to become a reality.