Among the largest modern internationalthe Eurasian Economic Union. Formally, it was established in 2014, but by the time the agreement on its creation was signed, the EEA member states already had significant experience of interaction in the regime of active economic integration. What is the specificity of the EAEC? Is this an economic or political union?
General information about the organization
Let's begin our study of the question raised by considering the key facts about the organization concerned. What are the most noteworthy information about the EEMP? What is this structure?
The Eurasian Economic Union, or the Unified Energy System, isa unification within the framework of international economic cooperation of several states of the Euro-Asian region - Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus and Armenia. It is expected that other countries will join this association, since the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) is an open structure. The main thing is that the candidates for joining the association share the goals of this organization and are willing to fulfill the obligations stipulated by the relevant agreements. The creation of the structure was preceded by the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community, as well as the Customs Union (which continues to function as one of the structures of the EAEC).
How did the idea for the formation of the Unified Energy System
As several sources testify, the state,the first to initiate the processes of economic integration in the post-Soviet space, which grew up in the establishment of the EAEC, - Kazakhstan. Nursultan Nazarbayev expressed the corresponding idea at the Moscow State University in 1994. Subsequently, the concept was supported by other former Soviet republics - Russia, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan.
The main advantage of finding a state inthe composition of the Eurasian Economic Union - the freedom of economic activity of the entities registered in it on the territory of all member countries of the Union. It is expected that the unified trading space, based on the common standards and norms of business conduct, will be formed on the basis of the EEA institutes.
Is there a place for political interaction?
So, the Unified Energy System - what is it, exclusively economicstructure, or an association that may be characterized by a political component of integration? At the moment and in the near future, as various sources testify, it will be more correct to talk about the first interpretation of the essence of the association. That is, the political aspect is excluded. Countries will integrate, pursuing economic interests.
There are data on initiatives to createsome supranational parliamentary structures within the framework of the EAEC. But the Republic of Belarus, Kazakhstan, as a number of sources testify, do not consider the possibility of their participation in the construction of appropriate political communications. Countries want to maintain complete sovereignty by agreeing only on economic integration.
However, for many experts and lay peopleIt is obvious how close the political relations of the countries belonging to the EAEC are. The composition of this structure is formed by the closest allies, who do not have publicly expressed fundamental differences on the difficult situation in the world arena. This allows some analysts to draw conclusions that economic integration within the framework of the association under consideration would be very difficult with significant political disagreements of the member countries of the association.
History of the Unified Energy System
It is better to understand the specifics of the EAEC (what is thisorganization) will help us study some facts from the history of the association. In 1995, the heads of several states - Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, later - Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, formalized the agreements establishing the Customs Union. On their basis, in 2000, the Eurasian Economic Community, or EurAsEC, was established. In 2010, a new association - the Customs Union. In 2012, the Single Economic Space was opened - first with the participation of the states included in the CU, then - Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joined the structure.
In 2014, Russia, Kazakhstan, as well asBelarus signed an agreement on the establishment of the EAEC. Later, he was joined by Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The provisions of the relevant document entered into force in 2015. The Customs Union of the EAEC continues, as we noted above, to function. It includes the same countries as in the EEMP.
Thus, the EEA member states -The Republic of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan - began to interact long before the corresponding association was established in the modern form. According to some analysts, the Eurasian Economic Union is an example of an international organization with a progressive, systematic development of integration processes, which can predetermine the significant stability of the relevant structure.
Stages of development of the Unified Energy System
Several stages of development of the Eurasianeconomic union. The first is the establishment of a free trade zone, the development of norms by which commodity turnover between the member countries of the EAEC can be effected without duties. At the same time, each state remains independent in the aspect of conducting trade with third countries.
The next stage of the development of the EAEC is the formation ofCustoms Union, which assumes the formation of an economic space, within which the movement of goods will be carried out without hindrance. At the same time, the rules of foreign trade common to all member countries of the association should also be defined.
The most important stage in the development of the union is the formationsingle market. It is expected that an economic space will be created within which it will be possible to freely exchange not only goods, but also services, capital and personnel - among the member states of the association.
The next stage is the formation of an economic union, the participants of which will be able to coordinate the priorities for the implementation of economic policy between themselves.
After the listed tasks are solved,it will remain to achieve full economic integration of the states included in the association. This implies the creation of a supranational structure that will determine the priorities for building economic and social policies in all countries that are members of the Union.
Benefits of the Unified Energy System
Let us consider in more detail the key advantages,which are received by the members of the EAEC. Above we noted that among the key ones are the freedom of economic activity of economic entities that are registered in any state of the union throughout the entire territory of the EAEC. But this is not the only advantage of the state's accession to the organization we are examining.
Members of the EAEC will have the opportunity to:
- take advantage of low prices for many products, as well as reduce costs associated with the transportation of goods;
- develop markets more dynamically by increasing competition;
- increase labor productivity;
- Increase the economy by increasing demand for manufactured goods;
- to ensure the employment of citizens.
Prospects for GDP growth
Even for such economically powerful players asRussia, the EAEC is the most important factor of economic growth. Russia's GDP, according to some economists, can, thanks to the country's accession to the association under consideration, get a very powerful growth stimulus. Important indicators of the increase in GDP can be achieved by other member countries of the EEA - Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus.
Social dimension of integration
Apart from a positive economic effect,the countries-participants of the EAEC are expected to integrate also in the social aspect. International business activities, according to many experts, will help to establish partnerships, stimulate cultural exchange, and strengthen the friendship of nations. Integration processes are facilitated by the common Soviet past of peoples living in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. The cultural and, what is very important, the linguistic closeness of the EEA states is obvious. The organization of the organization is formed by countries in which the Russian language is used to the greater part of the population. Thus, many factors can contribute to the successful solution of the tasks facing the heads of state of the Eurasian Economic Union.
The agreement on the EAEC was signed, the case for its implementation. Among the most important tasks within the framework of the development of the Eurasian Economic Union is the creation of a number of supranational institutions whose activities will be aimed at promoting integration economic processes. In accordance with a number of public sources, it is envisaged the formation of some basic institutions of the EAEC. What structures can these be?
First of all, these are various commissions:
- on economics;
- on raw materials (it will deal with setting prices, as well as quotas for goods and fuel, coordinate policies in the sphere of precious metals turnover);
- on interstate financial and industrial associations and enterprises;
- for the entry of a monetary unit for settlements;
- on environmental issues.
It is also proposed to create a special Fund, inwhose competence - cooperation in various fields: in the economy, in the development of science and technology. It is expected that this organization will deal with the financing of various studies, assist participants in cooperation in solving a wide range of issues - legal, financial or, for example, environmental issues.
Other important supranational structures of the EAPS that are planned to be created are the International Investment Bank, as well as the arbitration of the Eurasian Economic Union.
Among successfully established associations that are part of the management structure of the EAEC, The Eurasian Economic Commission. Let's study the features of its activities in more detail.
The Eurasian Economic Commission
It can be noted that ECE was established in 2011,that is before the signing of the agreement on the establishment of the EAEC. It was founded by Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Initially, this organization was created to manage the processes at the level of such a structure as the Customs Union. The EAEC is a structure in the development of which the Commission is called upon to participate directly now.
The Council and the board are established in the ECE. The first structure should include deputy heads of government of the member states of the association. Three colleges from the member countries of the EAEC should work in the college. Within the framework of the Commission, it is envisaged to create separate departments.
The Eurasian Economic Commission is the most important, but not the most important supranational governing body of the EAEC. It is subordinated to the Higher Eurasian Economic Council. Let's consider the key facts about him.
The Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
This structure, like the Eurasian Economiccommission, was established several years before the states signed the treaty on the establishment of the EAEC. Thus, for a long time it was considered a supranational body in the structure of the Customs Union, as well as the Single Economic Space. The Council is formed by the heads of the member states of the EAEC. With periodicity, at least once a year, it must meet at the highest level. The heads of government of the member countries of the association must meet at least 2 times a year. Feature of the functioning of the Council - decisions are made in the format of consensus. The approved provisions are mandatory for implementation in the member countries of the EAEC.
Prospects of the Unified Energy System
How do analysts evaluate the development prospects of the EAEC? We noted above that some experts believe that simultaneously with economic integration, the political rapprochement of the member states of the association is inevitable. There are specialists who share this point of view. There are experts who completely disagree with it. The main argument of those analysts who see the prospects of politicization of the EAES is that Russia as a leading economic player of the association will somehow influence the decisions taken by the authorities of the member states of the EAEC. Opponents of this point of view believe that, on the contrary, it is not in the interests of the Russian Federation to show excessive interest in politicizing the relevant international association.
If the balance betweeneconomic and political component in the EEA, the Union's prospects, based on a number of objective indicators, are estimated by many analysts as very positive. Thus, the total GDP of the participating states of the structure in question will be comparable to that of the leading economies of the world. Taking into account the scientific and resource potential of the EAEC, the volumes of the economic systems of the member countries of the Union can significantly grow in the future.
Cooperation at the world level
According to a number of analysts, prospectscooperation with the EEMP are attractive to countries that seemingly are far from the economic space formed by the countries that signed the agreement on the EEA - Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus and Armenia. For example, the recent agreement on free trade with the EAEC was signed by Vietnam.
Syria, Egypt are interested in cooperation. This gives analysts an excuse to say that the Eurasian Economic Union can become the most powerful player in the world market.