For 150 years, the Northern Ironthe road is a unique highway that starts in the center of Russia and stretches for 8,838 km to the Far North and the Polar Circle, crosses the Urals, goes from the European part of the country to the Asian one.
This is one of 16 tracks of Russian Railways.
How it all began
The first document marking the appearance of the Northern Railway was the High Command of the Emperor of Russia, which approved the charter of the Society of the Moscow-Yaroslav Railway.
It was headed by Professor F. Chizhov, who attracted Moscow merchants. It was collected 15 thousand silver rubles, immediately began to build.
Unofficially, the first section is a track,commissioned in 1862. It connected Moscow and Sergiev Posad. A dozen locomotives traveled along this railway 65 miles in length, carrying more than a hundred commodity and passenger carriages, as well as 15 baggage trains.
The importance and necessity of the road was obvious, thereforea decision is made to expand it. Since September 1868, regular traffic has begun along the Shuisko-Ivanovskaya railway line, where 14 steam locomotives cruising 170 commodity and 28 passenger carriages flew.
For a short period (1870-1872 gg.), The joint-stock company, headed by a well-known businessman and philanthropist S. Mamontov, is also laying other lines:
- from Alexandrov to Vologda through Yaroslavl;
- from Rybinsk to Sonkov;
- from Ivanovo to Kineshma.
Volga trading cities receive direct access to theSt. Petersburg and Moscow. S. Mamontov, creating highways, built and station buildings in a unified style. To this end, architects L. Kekushev and I. Ivanov-Shits were invited, their efforts are beautiful, with stucco stations on the line of Vologda - Arkhangelsk.
In 1900 the road passes to the state.
Active construction continues, paving the way to Kostroma, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, which gradually turns from a backwater into an important transportation hub connecting the two capitals of the empire.
In 1907 the main line between Moscow, Yaroslavl and Arkhangelsk (more than 2 thousand versts) is officially named - the Northern Railway.
In 1911, the transition to a wide track begins.
The mainline of the early twentieth century
The Northern Railway, whose history is closely intertwined with the history of the country, knew the times of prosperity and decline.
After the revolution, only 226 steam locomotives were repaired during the subbotniks in 1919.
In 1923, during the inventory of property, it was discovered that 44% of the structures of the SZD were worn out. The re-equipment and electrification of the railway communication begins.
Already in 1924 the first section was electrified: a suburban highway from Moscow to Pushkino.
The trend of that time was not spared by the SZD: in 1935, for the first time, a meeting of Stakhanovite shock troops took place. They sought to save fuel, work without accidents, increase speeds.
The Northern Railway during the war years
By the beginning of the war, the SZH carried 85% of all cargo incountry. On June 22, 1941, the leaders of all stations on the Northern Road, like other highways, received orders to detain echelons bound for Germany and to facilitate the transport of troops and equipment.
Seeking to help the front, the railway workersheld subbotniks, mastered adjacent specialties, repaired locomotives on their own, met the standards by 200-300%. Many went to the front as volunteers. In the depot, they organized the production of anti-tank fences, armored trains, bakery trains and bathhouses.
Despite the war, the Northern Railwaywas built and developed. In 1941, for 3 weeks, roads were built that connected the October and North Highway in the Kabozh region. In 1942, 367 km of the Severo-Pechora line, necessary for the delivery of coal, was completed. The road in wartime was built according to simplified schemes, sleepers sometimes laid on ice and frozen ground. When laying the tracks, the labor of camp prisoners was used.
In total, during the war years, the Northern Roadlengthened by 1600 km, firmly connecting the mines of Vorkuta with the center. The speed with which the North Pechora highway was built was incredible: 1.9 km were created per day.
Thanks to the SZD during the war from Siberia and from the UralsThey delivered fuel, food, equipment, coal to the front. In the opposite direction, thousands of evacuated people, equipment of factories, libraries, museum exhibits were transported to safe areas.
Despite all the efforts of the railway workers,the highway suffered heavy losses during the war years. In total, about 16 thousand trains were lost, thousands of kilometers of tracks were destroyed. For the workers of the Northern Railway, the main thing was to restore them, and also to increase the capacity, to eliminate the dependence on snowfalls, which in winter paralyzed the movement.
In 1953 the Yaroslavl and Vologda railroads unite in the North, in 1959 they join Pechorskaya. The development of the SZH revived the Far North, the rich commodity regions became available:
- Ukhtinsky, where oil was processed;
- Vorkuta, famous for its coal mining;
- Syktyvkar - processing of forest.
By 1965, almost half of the routes had already been transferred to electric locomotives and diesel locomotives.
In the 1970s, newArkhangelsk, Karpogory and Palenyu, Yadrihu and Veliky Ustyug, Sosnogorsk and Pechorsk, Mikun and Wendig. Introduced an automated system that allows the uninterrupted control of the movement of many trains, semaphores are replaced by traffic lights.
In the 80's, the automatic workstation management was installed. In 1984, the first train of 24 wagons was sent to Moscow.
The plans to build another 2 thousand kilometers of the SZD.
Uniqueness of the highway
The importance of the SZD can not be overestimated: it connected the industrial regions of the country with raw materials, promoted the construction of new cities, factories, promoted the development of trade.
Connects the city's Northern RailwaySyktyvkar, Vorkuta, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Arkhangelsk. The development of the Far North without this highway would hardly have been possible. Today SZD provides delivery of cargoes to the cosmodrome Plesetsk, to the port of Arkhangelsk, supplies gas workers and oil workers working for Yamal.
The activities of the SZD ensure the work of about 10,000 small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as industrial giants such as Severstal, Vorkutaugol, Slavneft, etc.
Being a subdivision of Russian Railways, the Northern Railway connects:
- 7 regions of central Russia - Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Vologda, Vladimir, Arkhangelsk, Kostroma, Kirov;
- The Republic of Komi;
35% of the length of the highway passes through the Central region of Russia and 65% in the North-West.
The most important cargo stations of the SZD are Vorkuta, Cherepovets, Inta, Novoyaroslavskaya.
Sorting stations operate on the highway, among them Solvychegodsk, Yaroslavl-Main, Lost.
Geography: cities and stations
The structure of the road is determined by its geographical location. The structure of SZD includes such highways:
- Moscow - Arkhangelsk through Alexandrov (1,040 km);
- Pecherskaya, which includes the direction of Konosh - Vorkuta through Kotlas, as well as the branches of Chum-Labytnangi, Troitsko-Pechorsk-Sosnogork, Syktyvkar-Yertom, its length is 1,562 km.
Latitudinal routes of the Northern Railway:
- Obozerskaya - Little;
- St. Petersburg - Ekaterinburg through Cherepovets, Vologda, Candle, Kirov.
Intra-district roads and access roadsindustrial enterprises with a length of almost 5 thousand km are no less significant, since they increase the level of maneuverability and economic efficiency of logistics of transportation. These are such highways as:
- Bologoe - Ermolino;
- Kineshma - Belkovo through Ivanovo;
- Bui - Danilov;
- Novki - Sonkovo through Ivanovo, Nerehtu, Yaroslavl and Rybinsk;
- Nerekhta - Galich through Kostroma.
The freight turnover of the Northern Railway isabout 4.5% of the total volume of goods transported by RZD. It carries out small transit and large local transportation in the region. In 2016, 246.3 million tons of cargo were transported.
Thanks to the railroad, mined useful minerals are exported:
- coal from Vorkuta, Inta, and Troughs, which accounts for almost 4% of total production in Russia;
- mineral building materials;
- oil from Ukhta;
- forest from Arkhangelsk stations, this is 1/4 of the entire forest production of the country;
- black metals.
The structures of the SZD bring construction materials and bread to the region.
Among local shipments, coal, firewood and construction materials are leading.
Specialists note that the freight traffic of the Northern Road is on average higher than the entire network of Russian Railways.
Leading in the volume of turnover of such stations of the Northern Railway, as:
- The Volga region;
Although the Northern Railway serves a small number of passengers (in comparison with RZhD), in figures it looks impressive - 10.7 million people used it in 2016 by this railway.
The passenger economy includes:
- 52 trains of the Northern long-distance railway, that is, almost 2,000 wagons;
- 223 the composition of suburban communications;
- 9 brand trains.
SZD serves about 100 thousand passengers daily.
The bulk of traffic issuburban, it's about 70% or 8.1 million people, according to 2016 data. The Moscow-Yekaterinburg motorway, taking into account Yaroslavl, is the most demanded area.
Being a branch of Russian Railways, the Northern Railway has the address of the central administration in Yaroslavl, on Volzhskaya nab., 59.
In the structure of its 5 branches, which are located in the following cities and towns:
- Arkhangelsk, pl. 60 years of October, 4;
- Vologda, Mira, 39;
- Solvychegodsk, ul. Ulyanov, 21;
- Sosnogorsk, Opreslinina, 1;
- Yaroslavl, Freedom, 72.
Almost 46 thousand employees work in different subdivisions of the SZD. The management of the Northern Railway is carried out by its chief, at the moment the post is occupied by Tanaev VF.
Interaction with other modes of transport
River transport has long played a large role in the Far North, therefore many railway stations cooperate with shipping companies:
- Pechorsky (railway station Abez, Kozhva and Sosnogorsk);
- Northern (Sheksna);
- Volzhsky (Kostroma transshipment stations, Rybinsk, Yaroslavl, Kineshma).
SZHD is linking sea ports, primarily Arkhangelsk, Mezen, Onega and Naryan-Mar, with all regions of Russia.
Federal automobile routes carry out final delivery of cargoes from railway stations to consumers.