The vastness of our country, its wealth is invariablyattracted many invaders who sought to erase Russia as a state from the face of the earth. Since the beginning of the existence of ancient settlements and to this day, the threat of invasion of our territory is constantly present. But the Russian land has defenders, the history of the armed forces of our country begins with the epic heroes and prince's squads. The Russian Imperial Army, the Red Army of the USSR, the modern armed forces of the Russian Federation support and strengthen the glory of the national weapons.
Formation of the regular armed forces of Russiabegins under Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich, their basis was the existing Streltsky units and parts of the city squads. For a sample, the troops of foreign Western European powers were received. The "new army" was formed on the basis of recruitment, the service life was lifelong. 18 orders conducted control over the recruitment, training, and provision of land military units. Irregular (voluntary) horse connections were not included in the official strength, they were made up of Cossacks, Caucasians, Siberians and nationalities of Central Asia. The process of reforming the troops at the end of the 17th century was started by Peter I. It was from this moment on that the Russian Imperial Army conducts its history. After the 1698 rebellion, the Strelka regiments were disbanded, the number of orders reduced to three, and urgent mobilization was carried out. According to its results, the Russian Army received 25 infantry and 2 dragoon (cavalry) regiments, the structure of the divisions and their management significantly changed. The "Military Regulations" was created, according to which the recruits trained, the sample was Transfiguration and Semenov's connections.
Peter I paid much attention to a clear divisiontroops on infantry, artillery, cavalry and navy. This structure made it possible to bring all the weapons to a uniform standard, to streamline the supply through the creation of manufactories that carried out state orders. The Russian Imperial Army increased due to the fleet created by foreign engineers at the initial stage. By 1722, the land forces numbered 200,000 soldiers and officers, the fleet was equipped with 500 ships (rowing and sailing). All weapons were standardized in European manners, mounted artillery was created, the first educational institutions for the training of regular military personnel were opened. Created by Peter "Table of Ranks" divided all types of land forces by birth, allocating a separate unit of the fleet. At the present stage this division is applied in the modernized version, in accordance with the requirements of today. The further reform of the army was conducted by the great commander AV Suvorov at the end of the XVIII century, more serious changes in the structure and management are associated with the name of Emperor Alexander II.
More than 75% of the armed forces were infantryshelves formed on a recruit basis (life was reduced from life to 25 years), about 20 -25% - cavalry. The peoples of Transcaucasia, Siberia, Central Asia were exempted from compulsory military service, but they paid a tax to the state treasury. Often these regions, following the example of the Cossacks, created horse volunteer regiments that were not included in official statistics, but took an active part in military operations. Officers of the Russian Imperial Army had a compulsory aristocratic background until 1762, when the "Manifesto of Liberty" was adopted. Under Peter I, most military chiefs were drawn from among foreigners, this was due to the lack of trained domestic personnel. Later, their recruitment for service was limited in accordance with the requirements developed by Peter I personally.
The troops of the foreign system created by Peter Iwere equipped according to the existing in Europe of that time traditions of weapons and the form of the Prussian model. Thus the armies of Prussia, Great Britain, Russia, Austria were equipped. Traditional leggings, cocked hat, wigs with braids complicate the rapid collection of troops and the speed of response to the threat in battle. The first changes in the form of uniform began the British, who faced another climate during military operations in the territory of future colonies. The form of the Russian Imperial Army is radically changing in the second half of the 18th century. The outfit becomes more practical and simple. For the existing at that time a huge number of types of military formations, 86 sketches were developed. The Russian Imperial Army wore military uniforms, the creation of which was directly related to the president of the military collegium, Count GA Potemkin. For all its simplicity, the form was overloaded with decorative elements: lapels were stitched with colored fabrics, gilded weaving, complex shaped lenses, hat-helmets designed for parades, but unsuitable for everyday wearing and combat conditions. Reform of uniforms was not affected by all types of troops, some Guards regiments wore the shape of a Prussian model until the beginning of the XIX century. In the future, the form was improved many times, but the main principle of reforming was comfortable wearing in peacetime and during military operations.
Legends have grown not only the history of manyarmy compounds, but also elements of uniforms. Pogon refers to this category, although its application is fairly prosaic and has a clear practical purpose. For the first time this element of uniform is used in the times of Peter I. The car is attached to the seam of the sleeve and has a fitting valve. Its main function is the fastening of the bag, which stores the soldiers' items and ammunition. The artillerymen, officers, cavalrymen of that time did not wear epaulettes, there was no need for it. Alexander I, in the process of reforming the army, attempted to use epaulettes as a distinctive sign between the officers and the rank and file. During this period they become not only a sign of difference, but also a decorative element of the form, which was decorated with rich sewing and weaving. Pursuits of the Russian Imperial Army in the XIX century become an identification mark. By their color, applied to monograms, it was possible to determine the type of troops, the regiment and the rank of each serviceman. Mass mobilization during the First World War complicated this process, the number of units increased, accordingly, the number of figures and letters on epaulets increased, which often led to confusion. Remnants of the imperial army, who fought after 1917 as White Guards, wore the form of an optional sample, the epaulettes were used as a decoration for the uniform and rarely corresponded to the system adopted in the Russian Empire.
In Peter's times, the regiments of the Russian imperialarmies wore the name of their commander. The first exception was the Semenovsk and Preobrazhensky compounds, which got the name from the settlement of the formation. Subsequently, army units were named after Russian cities, while the regiment was not formed and was not even based in the point, whose name it bears. Part of the divisions bore the names of "chefs", in this capacity, as a rule, members of the royal family acted. Such regiments had distinctive features in uniform, their uniforms were decorated with special insignia. During the reformation of the imperial army, Alexander introduced a simplified system for designating military units. Their names corresponded to the place of formation with the assignment of the serial number. Later, awards and titles received for successfully conducted operations became part of the name of the regiment.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Imperial Armywas the largest in Europe. The General Staff was the head administrative building. The recruit service was abolished in 1874, it was replaced by a system of all-union military service. All males from the age of 21 were recruited, the service time for the ground forces was 6 years, in the navy - 7. After passing compulsory education, servicemen left for a period of 9 to 3 years. In the case of general mobilization, the reservists became the first to be drafted into the active forces. As a percentage of the population, the Russian army could mobilize 2.5% in wartime. In absolute terms, this is about 3 million soldiers and officers. With the development of technology, the army is replenished with imperial aviation, tank, road and railway troops.
Glory of the Russian weapon
Military successes and defeats accompanied anycommander. In this respect, the Russian Imperial Army - the legendary troops, the names of Suvorov AV, Kutuzov MI, Ushakov FF, Nakhimova PS, Davydova DV are synonymous with heroism and courage. The great generals left their name in world history and consolidated the glory of Russian weapons. After the disbandment of the imperial army in 1918, the history of its creation, existence, victories and defeats was treated in a truncated form. But it contains invaluable experience of many generations, which must be taken into account by modern military officers and commander-in-chief.