Theories of emotions are formed throughout thehistory of the development of psychology and physiology. It is difficult to answer the question of which one is classical, since all are correct. Therefore, a more complete statement will be that they complement each other. Let us examine in detail the main provisions of each of them.
Wilhelm Wundt's Theory of Emotions considers in more detail their structure. The scientist was able to distinguish such manifestations as pleasure or displeasure, calm or agitation. In addition, within the framework of this direction, much attention was paid to tension or relaxation. In general, the psychologist emphasized that the main reasons for their appearance are physiological.
The James-Lange theory vasomotor model. She explains why this mental process arises. The leading role is assigned to the somatovegetative component. Therefore, any emotion is a sensation that appears in the process of changes in external movements, as well as involuntary (secretory, vascular and cardiac) activity. Consequently, the cause is peripheral changes.
These early theories of emotion were criticizedphysiologists in the middle of the XIX century with the help of a number of experiments. Thus, Charles Sherrington cut the spinal cord in the cervical region, as well as the vagus nerves. As a result, it was shown that the animal reacted emotionally as it did before. Hence, separation from the central HC visceral does not exert any influence.
U. Cannon, an American psychophysiologist and physiologist, showed that at the time of emotional excitement, the adrenaline hormone is released simultaneously. It is he who can ensure the mobilization of the whole organism for active action. At this moment, palpitation begins to intensify, the pupils widen and the digestive processes are disturbed, sugar is increased.
Later, biological theories of emotions appeared.
One of the most popular is concept of P. Anokhin. It explains the appearance of negative and positive emotions by the fact that there is a mismatch or a coincidence of the expected result and the real state of things.
Within the framework of biological theories is concept of activation of emotions. It is based on the importance of the role of the internalstructure of the brain. The sensory stimulus comes from the periphery to the center where it undergoes evaluation. The fact is that in the thalamus samples and sensory assessments of any behavior are laid. The existing "answer" is transmitted to the implementing body, from which the message will be transmitted, how to behave: to be happy or sad, to be surprised or angry, and so on.
Psychological theories of emotions are as follows.
Author the need-information concept is P. Simonov. According to her, emotion is a reflection of an actual need by the brain of an animal or person (besides, important factors are its quality and magnitude) and the likelihood of how satisfied it will be. This will be evaluated on the basis of genetic, or the previously acquired individual experience.
AT concept of S. Schechter two components arecause the experience of emotions. On the one hand, physiological arousal appears, on the other hand, the situation begins to be interpreted cognitively. For this, the excitation that appears is interpreted. This theory was based on a series of experiments in which respondents were injected with an exciting drug. Further, observed changes in behavior.
It can be noted that modern theories of emotions explain their appearance by psychophysiological reasons.