Scientific and technological progress (NTP) is recognized in the world as an important factor in the development of the economy. In literature (both domestic and Western), it is more often associated with the term "innovation process".
Scientific and technological progress of the 20th centurysignificant impact on the social development of the population of many countries. In the middle of the century - in the period of developed conjuncture - the concept of general well-being, formed according to the principles of rational efficiency, gained popularity.
As James Bright (Americaneconomist), scientific and technological progress is the only process capable of uniting technology, science, management, business, economics. The essence of the process is in obtaining and mastering innovation. Scientific and technological progress is a multi-stage phenomenon, beginning with the birth of innovation and ending with its commercial implementation. Thus, the process encompasses a complex of relations, including consumption, exchange, production.
Stimulating the development and implementation of innovationsis considered the most dynamic management tool associated with the impact on the interests of all participants in the process. As a result, they (participants) accelerate scientific and technological progress not only on instructions from above, but also in accordance with their own convictions.
Stimulation promotes the formation of advantages in satisfying the social and economic interests of enterprises developing and developing innovative high-performance equipment.
When the process is accelerated, the importanceis given to the formation of an organic bonus system based on the results of production and scientific and technical activities. Stimulating the innovation process involves not only moral or material encouragement. At the same time, there is a system of punishments, which implies a reduction in the funds for payment and social development of enterprises producing inefficient and obsolete products.
The organization of the acceleration of the innovation process is closely connected not only with the development of technology and science, but also with the change in relations in the social and economic sector.
Stimulation of scientific and technical progress implies the application ofmethods of environmental management. In the presence of established standards, fees for the resources used by the enterprise tend to be more rational and integrated in their application. In this case it is more profitable to use special resource-saving technologies, extracting from each ton of resources the maximum income. In addition, certain standards are established for payment for harmful emissions in the production process. In this connection, the enterprises strive to apply the technique, which reduces pollution. In this case, in case of exceeding the established norms on emissions from the company, an increased fee is charged.
Undoubtedly, scientific and technological progress is unthinkablewithout funding. In this case, special funds are formed and used to promote the development of scientific and technical progress. In accordance with their economic nature, they (the funds) refer to the social costs of production. They are in some way a form of reserving and transferring advanced costs for the cost of finished products. The role played by financing funds in the process of reproduction is approximated to the role of depreciation. Their use makes it possible to compensate for the costs of education, the development of innovations, and also to insure the associated risk.
Undoubtedly, the success of scientific and technological progress largely depends on the position that science occupies in the life of society.
As the world economic experience shows,transition to a market system can be successful in the face of radical economic reforms and large-scale changes in the basic economic structure.