Sociology is a doctrine that considerslife of society as a whole. The founder of this science is Auguste Comte, who constructed the very term "sociology" from two languages: Latin and Greek. In translation from them, the term means "to study society". O. Comte believed that society should be viewed as a single organism with many elements, and each cell should be viewed from the public good.
At the present time, sociology meansa rapidly developing science that studies the specifics of society and social relations. By the way, the latest definition of this discipline is: it is a science engaged in studying the processes of development, organizing people's lives. The tools and methods of sociological science are borrowed to study other sciences of society: economics, demography, law. Sociological methods allow obtaining accurate quantitative estimates of the characteristics of the development of society. Sociology as a science can be defined from the point of view of the object of sociology and the subject of science.
Objects of sociology can be:social objects, social processes, social relations, social communities, social subjects. The subject of sociology is the totality of basic properties and laws that characterize the essence of the object of sociology, its internal definition, the mechanism of manifestation and functioning of phenomena, social processes and relationships. One of the main places in the structure of sociology is methodology.
Methods of sociology - a system of rules and techniques theoretical and practical orientation for the study of social objects. Sociological methodology is a system of all applied methods in sociology. The following methods of sociology distinguish: General (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, analogy, abstraction, generalization, classification, average statistics) General scientific (system principle, principle of objectivity, the principle of historicism) Special methods of sociology (methods of general sociology, cross-cultural analysis, correlation analysis). The methods of sociology as a science should be considered separately. The instrument of knowledge in this case is a sociological study, which includes two main parts:
The main method of sociology, includes: the development of research programs, the choice of goals and objectives, the formulation of hypotheses and stages of research.
The research procedure includes: selection of tools for collecting information, determining the method of collecting information, processing information, obtaining characteristics of the state of the object under study.
Sociology of management is a separate theorysociology, specializing in the review and implementation of management processes in certain types of societies, organizations, institutions. These processes are carried out to preserve and ensure the sustainable development of the relevant system. This theory has its own methods of sociology management, objects, functions and subject. The subject is considered to be the study, evaluation and improvement of management processes. The object is the managerial processes taking place in individual subsystems of society.
The methods of sociology of management are given below:
Organizational and administrative. This includes the system of legislative acts of the country, the system of normative documents, the system, the developed plans, programs, the operational management system.
Economic - the tax system of the country, the credit and financial mechanism, the wage system, socio-psychological mechanisms.
All methods of sociology of management and scienceare focused primarily on the creation of effective management schemes and motivation for creation, this is a very tangible economic effect from their application.