One of the most outstanding achievements of the Indiancivilization, of course, is architecture. But these are not only the greatest monuments, such as the famous complexes of the Taj Mahal, Khajuraho and Vijayanagar. The architecture of India is diverse. In it, developed over many centuries, reflected the social, economic, geographical conditions characteristic of the country.
During the reign of Ashoka the Great (273 BC - 232 BC), a large-scale construction of Buddhist monasteries and stupas was conducted.
Buddhist architecture of India prevailed infor several centuries, and a few examples of magnificent buildings survived to modern times - the Big Stupa in the village of Sanchi, built by the order of Emperor Ashoka, which is considered the first stupa in history, and the temple and cave complex of Ajanta.
By the eighth century, with the unification of Hindukingdoms, the architectural style of the southern school became dominant. The most famous achievements of the Pallavas dynasty, whose state was concentrated in the northern territory of the modern state of Tamil Nadu (4-9 centuries), are the Mahabalipuram temple and cave complex and temples in Kanchipuram.
The rulers of the states Chola, Khoyasala, Vijayanagar also tried to leave a trace in Indian architecture.
The architecture of Khoyasala (between the 11th and 14th centuries) -architectural style, reached a special heyday in the 13th century. The active construction of temples in the state of Khoyasala was associated with the social, cultural, political events of that period. The stylistic features of the temple architecture reflect elements of the popular religious traditions of the Vaishnava and virasayva, as well as the military valor of the rulers of Khoyasala, who tried to outstrip the western rulers of Chalukya, which was manifested primarily in artistic achievements.
Located in the state of Karnataka, Chennekeshawa(Belur), Hoysaleshvara (Halebid), Keshava (Somnathpura) are wonderful examples of temple architecture, thanks to which there is an excellent opportunity to study medieval architectural traditions. In the state of Karnataka there are about 100 temples, mainly in the Malandu region, where the state of Khoyasala was located.
The architecture is combined and sculpture of India.Thus, the masters of Khoyasala were famous for depicting Hindu deities, scenes from epics and everyday life. Their unique art demonstrates scrupulous attention to all the details, every aspect is perfect, up to the fingertips and nails of the sculptures.
The most famous achievement of the state of Vijayanagar is the temple of Meenakshi (the city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu).
In the present state of Keralaformed a special style of architecture, combining Buddhist and Hindu traditions. A striking example is Ellora (Kerala), where the Hindus added a new collection of temples and sculptures to Buddhist caves. One of the most magnificent creations of Ellora - Kailasanath - is a majestic rock temple with amazing relief images.
At the same time, a distinctive style developed in northern India, known as the Nagara style of India. In terms of the temples were built quadrangular with a towering part in the center.
In central India, the rulers of Chandela built an amazing complex of Khajuraho temples.
During the reign of the Great Mogul dynastythe architecture of India was represented by the so-called Islamic-Indian style, still known as the imperial style (it was neither strictly Islamic nor strictly Indian).
With the colonization of India, a style developedIndo-Moorish architecture, combining Hindu, Islamic, European elements. In the Indo-Moorish style, public buildings were built in India - post offices, railway stations, government offices, holiday homes.