At the beginning of the summer of 1941, to be exact June 22, withtreacherous betrayal of Germany, the Great Patriotic War began. Hitler and his entourage created the "Barbarossa" plan, according to which the USSR was to be crushed lightning fast. The document was signed on December 18, 1940.
Each of us must remember the main dates of the Second World War andtransfer this knowledge to children. At the time of the conflict, the German army was the strongest in the world. It worked simultaneously in three directions and was to immediately capture the Baltic states, Leningrad, Kiev and Moscow.
August 23, 1939, a non-aggression pact was signed between the two countries - Germany and the USSR. Some historians believe that he contributed to the beginning of military confrontation.
According to the pact, the two countries had torefrain from any aggression, either alone or in alliance with other powers. The parties to the treaty also did not have to support coalitions that other countries could include, if their plans were military actions directed against Germany or the USSR. The signatories were:
- on the part of the USSR - Vyacheslav Molotov;
- from the German side - Joachim von Ribbentrop.
The day after the conclusion of the treaty, Germany attacked Poland.
Why did the Barbarossa plan fail?
All surrounded by Hitler understood that heprogrammed to capture the USSR. The decree to develop a plan for seizure was received by General Marx. He gave Hitler several options. Why did the Barbarossa plan fail? The German intelligence incorrectly estimated the military might of the USSR and the morale of the Red Army. According to her, for example, six times less military aircraft were produced in the USSR than in reality.
The beginning of confrontations
Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltics have suffered fromthe bombing of German aviation first. This happened at 3:30 am on June 22, 1941. In Zhukov's book "Memoirs and Reflections" the following figures are also given. In the battle participated:
- 4,950 combat aircraft;
- 3,712 tanks;
- 153 German divisions.
High school students study all the basic datesWWII, but most of all schoolchildren are struck by its beginning. It was a peaceful sunrise on June 22 - graduates met the dawn, said goodbye to the school and were preparing for an adult life. Each of them had plans and dreams, which were cut off by German tanks and planes. Goebbels told his people about the beginning of the war at 5:30 in the morning. He read Hitler's address on the Great German radio.
Brest Fortress - the first blow
If we consider all the main dates of the Second World War, thenthe defense of the fortress in the city of Brest is an incredible feat of soldiers, their families and just the population. The German troops planned to seize it for the first time during the war.
The defense was held by 3,500 people:
- 17th Frontier Detachment;
- division of the 6th and 42nd Infantry Divisions;
- 132nd Battalion of the NKVD troops.
The Brest Fortress was liberated from the Germans on July 28, 1944.
The garrison was cut off from the Red Army. As a result of the hurricane artillery fire, all communications and communication with the outside world were destroyed. Already on June 24, the Nazis partially captured the fortress. Shooting in the vicinity was audible until August.
The heroic defense of the Brest Fortress is a worthy example of patriotism. May 8, 1965 she was given the title of Hero Fortress. In 1971 it became a memorial.
The Battle of Smolensk
From July 10 to September 10, 1941 there wasSmolensk battle. The fascists came out against the Western Front. The army of the Third Reich had twice as many soldiers and four times as many tanks. The task of the fascists was to smash our Western Front into pieces and destroy the troops that defended Smolensk. This they had to clear the way to Moscow.
Smolensk battle is an event of the Second World War, in whichThe fascists collapsed for the first time since the beginning of the confrontation between Germany and the USSR. Soviet soldiers heroically defended this direction for 2 months. The enemy did not count on such resistance. This led to the complete disruption of all plans of the Wehrmacht. Instead of a quick seizure of Moscow, the enemy was forced to shift to defending his positions.
The seizure of Ukraine
Fascist Germany saw in Ukraine a strategically important object. The Germans needed coal from the Donetsk region, Krivoy Rog ore, and agricultural land.
If we take the strategic task, then, having seizedterritory of Ukraine, German troops could help in the south direction the central grouping of their colleagues in the capture of Moscow. Hitler was not able to defeat this country with lightning speed, but still the Red Army had to surrender.
The main dates of the Second World War, which concern Ukraine:
- The Red Army left the capital of Ukraine on September 19, 1941.
- German troops captured Odessa on October 16, 1941.
- Kharkov surrendered on October 24, 1941.
Union of winners
On August 14, 1941 the AtlanticCharter - a document that set out the main objectives of the war against the fascist states. Negotiations took place aboard the English ship Prince of Wales, which stopped in Newfoundland. The declaration was signed by Roosevelt and Churchill. The USSR and many other countries joined the Atlantic Charter on September 24, 1941. This program document of the anti-Hitler coalition determined the world order after the defeat of the fascists and became the basis for the creation of the UN.
The turning point February 2 - The Battle of Stalingrad
The capture of Stalingrad was very important for the fascists. The Germans wanted to get the road to:
- Caucasus (oil-bearing regions);
- the lower Volga;
- The Kuban;
It is terrible to imagine that it would be if the Germantroops captured Stalingrad. As a result, the Soviet army would lose one of the most important waterways of the country - the Volga River. It was loaded with cargo from the Caucasus. Having seized Stalingrad, the enemy wanted to cut off the south of the USSR from the central part. One hundred and twenty-five days there were fierce battles for this city, but Stalingrad stood firm. The confrontation began on July 17, 1942, and at the end of the winter of 1943 (February 2) the Battle of Stalingrad was won.
The Battle of Kursk
After the defeat of the fascists at Stalingrad, the Germanthe troops were thrown back and wanted revenge. The victory of the Red Army created conditions for the expulsion of the enemy from Ukraine. In December 1942 the liberation of Donbass began.
July 5, 1943, the battle began at Kursk, which lasted 50 days. It ended with the victory of the Soviet troops. The battle of Kursk made it possible to liberate Kharkov and other cities of Ukraine:
- the whole Donbass.
In the summer of 1943, on July 12, under Prokhorovkathe most terrible battle in history. Within an hour the battlefield was strewn with flashing tanks that clung to the tracks and fired until the enemy machine exploded. Soviet troops heroically stood up in this struggle and closed the enemy's way to Kursk.
End of the war: interesting facts
German troops capitulated on May 9, 1945 in the00:43 minutes is a victory, a great event of the Second World War. The most bloody in the history of the Soviet military confrontation lasted 1,418 days. May 9 at 22:00 in a sign of victory in Moscow gave a salute from a huge number of guns.
This date is the end of the Second World War, but the militarythe confrontations in the world did not end. There was a union treaty that needed to be implemented. August 8, Soviet troops began to fight with Japan. The confrontation lasted 2 weeks. Soviet soldiers defeated in Manchuria a powerful Kwantung Army.
According to the documents, the USSR was in a state of military confrontation with Germany until January 1955, as immediately after the capitulation, a peace treaty was not signed.
Do not forget the main dates of the Second World War - it is everyone's dutyfrom us to those who defended our land. The Second World War claimed the lives of 65 million people around the globe. It is necessary to remember this in order that the terrible tragedy never again touched humanity.