/ The Avachinskaya Sopka. Characteristics and history.

Avachinsky hillock. Characteristics and history.

Near the regional center of the Kamchatka Territorytowers this mountain of fire called Avachinskaya Sopka. It is clearly visible from the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Its name was given by the Avacha River, which flows not far from the foot.

general characteristics

Avachinskaya Sopka (volcano Avachinsky) is one of theactive volcanoes of Kamchatka. Cone-shaped, the height is 2741 meters above sea level. Refers to the Somma-Vesuvius type. This is a classic type, they are also called double, since the young cone is built into the older one. The diameter of the crater of the Avachinsky volcano is about 400 meters. The height of the eastern part of the base of the volcano reaches 2300 meters.

Avacha hill
Geographical coordinates: 53.15 north latitude, 158.51 east longitude. Avachinskaya Sopka on the map is located closer to the coast of the Pacific Ocean and not far from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.

The upper part of the volcano is covered with a glacier.Ice and firn gradually slide down to the foot. On the slopes there are cedar and stone birch. At the foot there is a station of volcanologists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who study the active volcanoes of Kamchatka.

Education of the volcano

Avachinsky volcano structures were formedgradually, over a long period of time. Education it was 30 thousand years. The beginning of this process falls on the Pleistocene. About 11 thousand years ago there was a powerful explosion that formed a somma hills. During this catastrophic eruption in the vicinity of Avachinsky volcano threw out about 12 cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks.

Avachinsky volcano
The diameter of the formed somma has exceeded 4 kilometers.

In the future, periods of rest were followed by subsequent eruptions that formed the body of the volcano. The modern cone of Avachinsky began to grow about 5 thousand years ago.

Eruption of the twentieth century

Avachinskaya Sopka is a volcano, active, and inIn the last century, 6 eruptions were recorded. The penultimate revival occurred in 1945. The ash column then rose to a height of about 8 kilometers, then rushing down the slopes and evaporating the lying snow. The ash cloud was dotted with numerous sparkling lightning. Then volcanic bombs flew, which reached a kilometer height.

Avacha volcano
The buzz of the eruption reached Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky,where at that time the earth trembled and the dishes and glass rattled. The layer of ash in some places reached half a meter, roads were covered, many vegetation died. There were casual casualties.

On 13 January 1991, the lasttoday, the volcanic eruption. And this is after 46 years of hibernation. In the process, there were two large enough explosions, and the upward lava flow first filled the crater, and then flowed over the edge to the southern part of the cone.

Current state of the volcano

The Somme (base) of Avachinsky is composed of basaltic and andesite rocks, and the cone - only basaltic.

If before the last awakening the crater looked likebowl, then as a result of the 1991 eruption, the crater of the volcano Avachinskaya Sopka is now sealed with a lava stopper. According to volcanologists, this means that the next eruption will be accompanied by a powerful explosion.

Avacha hill
The plug contains fumaroles, which periodicallythrow away hot fumes and gases. The lava field constantly soars, on top there is a strong smell of hydrogen sulfide. You can stumble on pieces of crystalline sulfur. Due to the internal heating, the cork is gradually sinking, so moving along the lava field without the accompaniment of volcanologists is a serious danger.

The object of tourism

The first historically recorded ascent toThe hill was made on July 14, 1824 by a group of travelers in the following composition: G. Zivald, E. Hoffmann, E. Lenz. The three researchers managed not only to lift the volcano Avachinskaya Sopka, but also to take samples of rocks for study.

Currently, every year several thousandtourists repeat the path of explorers, discovering the Avachinsky volcano. Avachinsky's special popularity among other, no less picturesque volcanoes of Kamchatka, is explained by its availability.

active volcanoes of Kamchatka
In addition to the fact that Avachinskaya Sopka is close tolocation to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (less than 30 kilometers), the ascent to the summit does not require any climbing equipment or special training. From the foot to the top of the mountain a path is laid, the way the average traveler crosses in 6-8 hours. In addition, before the ascent to the hill is a special shelter ("Avachinsky"). Travel to the top of the mountain occurs in the period April-December (the best time is July-August) along the northwestern part of the cone.

Safety precautions

Despite the rather simple natureclimbing the Avachinsky hillock (marked trail, equipped in the most difficult areas with rope rails), one can not neglect simple safety rules, as this can lead unwary tourists to death.

Avachinsky volcano in its history of ascentshas cases of death. This incident occurred on June 20, 1968. On that day there were extremely unfavorable conditions for recovery. There was a strong wind, the top of the mountain was obscured by a cloud. Despite this, unfamiliar with the scheme of the route, two Leningrad tourists began their ascent. Slope is very icy. Although the travelers took their ice axes, they could not hold onto the cone of the volcano. Their severely damaged and frozen bodies were found only after two days at the foot of the hill.