Near the regional center of the Kamchatka Territorytowers this mountain of fire called Avachinskaya Sopka. It is clearly visible from the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Its name was given by the Avacha River, which flows not far from the foot.
Avachinskaya Sopka (volcano Avachinsky) is one of theactive volcanoes of Kamchatka. Cone-shaped, the height is 2741 meters above sea level. Refers to the Somma-Vesuvius type. This is a classic type, they are also called double, since the young cone is built into the older one. The diameter of the crater of the Avachinsky volcano is about 400 meters. The height of the eastern part of the base of the volcano reaches 2300 meters.
The upper part of the volcano is covered with a glacier.Ice and firn gradually slide down to the foot. On the slopes there are cedar and stone birch. At the foot there is a station of volcanologists of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who study the active volcanoes of Kamchatka.
Education of the volcano
Avachinsky volcano structures were formedgradually, over a long period of time. Education it was 30 thousand years. The beginning of this process falls on the Pleistocene. About 11 thousand years ago there was a powerful explosion that formed a somma hills. During this catastrophic eruption in the vicinity of Avachinsky volcano threw out about 12 cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks.
In the future, periods of rest were followed by subsequent eruptions that formed the body of the volcano. The modern cone of Avachinsky began to grow about 5 thousand years ago.
Eruption of the twentieth century
Avachinskaya Sopka is a volcano, active, and inIn the last century, 6 eruptions were recorded. The penultimate revival occurred in 1945. The ash column then rose to a height of about 8 kilometers, then rushing down the slopes and evaporating the lying snow. The ash cloud was dotted with numerous sparkling lightning. Then volcanic bombs flew, which reached a kilometer height.
On 13 January 1991, the lasttoday, the volcanic eruption. And this is after 46 years of hibernation. In the process, there were two large enough explosions, and the upward lava flow first filled the crater, and then flowed over the edge to the southern part of the cone.
Current state of the volcano
The Somme (base) of Avachinsky is composed of basaltic and andesite rocks, and the cone - only basaltic.
If before the last awakening the crater looked likebowl, then as a result of the 1991 eruption, the crater of the volcano Avachinskaya Sopka is now sealed with a lava stopper. According to volcanologists, this means that the next eruption will be accompanied by a powerful explosion.
The object of tourism
The first historically recorded ascent toThe hill was made on July 14, 1824 by a group of travelers in the following composition: G. Zivald, E. Hoffmann, E. Lenz. The three researchers managed not only to lift the volcano Avachinskaya Sopka, but also to take samples of rocks for study.
Currently, every year several thousandtourists repeat the path of explorers, discovering the Avachinsky volcano. Avachinsky's special popularity among other, no less picturesque volcanoes of Kamchatka, is explained by its availability.
Despite the rather simple natureclimbing the Avachinsky hillock (marked trail, equipped in the most difficult areas with rope rails), one can not neglect simple safety rules, as this can lead unwary tourists to death.
Avachinsky volcano in its history of ascentshas cases of death. This incident occurred on June 20, 1968. On that day there were extremely unfavorable conditions for recovery. There was a strong wind, the top of the mountain was obscured by a cloud. Despite this, unfamiliar with the scheme of the route, two Leningrad tourists began their ascent. Slope is very icy. Although the travelers took their ice axes, they could not hold onto the cone of the volcano. Their severely damaged and frozen bodies were found only after two days at the foot of the hill.