For children, a fairy tale is amazing, buta fictional story about magic objects, monsters and heroes. However, if you look deeper, it becomes clear that a fairy tale is a unique encyclopaedia reflecting the life and moral foundations of any people.
For several hundred years, people have come up with a hugenumber of fairy tales. Our ancestors passed them by word of mouth. They changed, disappeared and came back again. And the heroes of fairy tales can be absolutely different characters. Most often the heroes of Russian folk tales are animals, and in European literature the main characters are princesses and children.
Fairy tale and its meaning for the people
A fairy tale is a narrative story aboutfictional, not really happened events involving fictional heroes and magical characters. Fairy tales, composed by the people and being the creation of folklore traditions, exist in every country. Russian people are closer to Russian folk tales about animals, kings and Ivan the fool, to the inhabitants of England - about leprechauns, gnomes, cats, etc.
Fairy tales have the most powerful educational power. The child from the cradle listens to fairy tales, associates himself with the characters, puts himself in their place. Due to this, he develops a certain model of behavior. Folk tales about animals teach careful treatment of our lesser brothers.
It is also worth noting that Russian folk talescharacter include such words as "master", "man". This awakens curiosity in the child. With the help of fairy tales, you can interest the child with a story.
Everything that is invested in a child as a child, remains with him forever. Correctly brought up on fairy tales the kid will grow up a decent and sympathetic person.
Most of the tales are written on the same system. It is the following scheme:
1) The Beginning. It describes the place where events will occur. If it's folk tales about animals, then in the beginning the description will start from the forest. Here the reader or listener gets acquainted with the main characters.
2) String. At this stage of the tale, the main intrigue takes place, which turns into the beginning of the plot. Let's say a hero has a problem and he must solve it.
3) Culmination. It is also called the top of the fairy tale. Most often this is the middle of the work. The situation is heating up, the most responsible actions are taking place.
4) Decoupling. At this point, the protagonist solves his problem. All the characters live long and happily (as a rule, folk tales have a good, kind ending).
According to this scheme, most of the fairy tales are built. It can also be found in author's works, only with significant additions.
Russian folk tales
They represent a huge block of folkloreworks. Russian fairy tales are diverse. Their subjects, actions and heroes are somewhat similar, but, nevertheless, each in its own way is unique. Sometimes come across the same folk tales about animals, their names are different.
All Russian folk tales can be classified as follows:
1) Folk tales about animals, plants and inanimate nature ("Terem-Teremok", "Kurochka-ryaba", etc.)
2) Magical ("Tablecloth-Samobranka", "Flying Ship").
3) Fables ("Byl-fiction", "Went Vanya on horseback ...")
4) Fairy tales ("About the white bull", "The priest had a dog").
5) Household ("The Barin and the Dog", "Good Pop", "Well Yes, Ill", "Pot").
There are a lot of classifications, but we considered the proposed V. Ya. Propp, one of the outstanding researchers of the Russian fairy tale.
Images of animals
Everyone who grew up in Russia canlist the main animals that are the characters of Russian fairy tales. A bear, a wolf, a fox, a hare are the heroes of Russian fairy tales. Animals live in the forest. Each of them has its own image, in literary criticism called allegory. For example, a wolf, whom we meet in Russian fairy tales, is always hungry and angry. It's always a negative hero. Because of his anger or greed, he often falls into a mess.
The bear is the owner of the forest, the king. His fairy tales are usually portrayed as a just and wise ruler.
The fox is an allegory of cunning. If this animal is present in a fairy tale, then one of the other heroes must be deceived. A hare is an image of cowardice. He, as a rule, is an eternal victim of the fox and wolf, intending to eat it.
So, it is these heroes that Russian folk tales about animals represent to us. Let's see how they behave.
Consider some folk tales about animals. The list is huge, we will try to analyze only a few. For example, let's take the tale "The Fox and the Crane". She tells of Lisa, who called Zhuravlya to her house for dinner. She cooked porridge, smeared it on a plate. And Crane to eat inconveniently, therefore porridge to it has not got. Such was the trick of the economical Fox. Crane invited Lisa for dinner, cooked okroshki and offered to eat from a pitcher with a high throat. But Fox never got to okroshka. The moral of a fairy tale: how it will turn up, so, unfortunately, it will respond.
The fairy tale about Kotofey Ivanovich is interesting. One guy brought a cat into the forest and left it there. He was found a fox and married him. She began to tell all the beasts how strong and furious he was. The wolf and the bear decided to come to see him. The fox warned that it was better for them to hide. They climbed a tree, and under it lay the bull's meat. A cat with a fox came, the cat attacked the meat, began to say: "Meow, meow ...". And the wolf and the bear seem: "Little! Little!". They were surprised, they wanted to take a closer look at Kotofey Ivanovich. Leaves fluttered, and the cat thought it was a mouse, and clawed at them with claws. The wolf with the fox escaped.
These are Russian folk tales about animals. As you can see, the fox all around your finger.
Animals in English fairy tales
Positive characters in English fairy talesa chicken and a cock act, a cat and a cat, a bear. The fox and the wolf are always negative characters. It is remarkable that, according to philologists, a cat in English fairy tales has never been a negative character.
Like Russian, English folk tales aboutanimals divide characters into good and evil. Good always triumphs over evil. Also, works have a didactic purpose, that is, in the end there are always moral conclusions for readers.
Examples of English fairytales about animals
Interesting is the work "The Cat's King". It tells of two brothers who lived in the forest with a dog and a black cat. One brother once stayed on the hunt. On his return he began to tell miracles. He says he saw the funeral. Many cats carried a coffin with a depicted crown and a scepter. Suddenly a black cat, lying at his feet, raised his head and cried: "Old Peter is dead! I'm a cat's king!". After that, he jumped into the fireplace. No one else saw him.
As an example, we give a comical fairy tale "Willy andpig. "One owner trusted his stupid servant to take the pig to his friend, but Willie's friends persuaded him to go to the inn, and while he was drinking, they jokingly substituted the pig for the dog." Willie thought this was a devil's joke.
Animals in other genres of literature (fables)
It is worth noting that Russian literature includesnot only Russian folk tales about animals. She is also rich in fables. Animals in these works have such qualities of people as cowardice, kindness, stupidity, envy. Especially animals as characters loved to use IA Krylov. His fables "The Crow and the Fox", "Monkey and Glasses" are known to all.
Thus, it can be concluded thatthe use of animals in fairy tales and fables gives the literature a special charm and style. And in English and Russian literature the heroes are the same animals. Only their stories and characteristics are completely different.