William Wordsworth, whose biography and writingare the subject of this review, was the largest representative of the direction of romanticism in English literature. His work in many ways determined the transition from classicism to romanticism. His landscape and philosophical lyrics are the best example of the world's poetic heritage.
Wordsworth William was a vivid representative of histime, his works should be viewed in the context of the era. In the 18th century, the dominant trend in English literature was classicism. However, by the end of the century there was a tendency towards a transition to sentimental and romantic lyrics. In many respects this was determined by the dominant trends of that era, but precisely because Rousseau's works played a great role in social and political thought and in literature in general. The cult of nature advanced by him and the depiction of human experiences, emotions, psychology of personality had a huge impact on the educated circles of that time. In addition, English literature already had the experience of creating sonnets, images of nature and subtle lyrics. The works of W. Shakespeare, D. Chaucer, and D. Milton had a great influence on the poet's work.
Childhood, youth and travel
Wordsworth William was born in 1770 in the countyCumberland. He was the son of a real estate agent. The boy was sent to a school in North Lancashire, where he received a good education: he studied ancient and English literature, mathematics. However, even more important was the fact that the child grew in nature, which had a huge influence on the formation of the personality. It was then that he fell in love with landscapes, which later became mainly in his lyrical works. Then Wordsworth William entered Cambridge University, where the atmosphere of rivalry prevailed, which he did not like.
However, it was during the student years that thea very significant event: on vacation the young man with his friend went on a trip on foot to France, where revolutionary upheavals were taking place. They made a great impression on the future poet. Together with his companion, he reached the lake edge in Italy. This trip was of great importance for his work: under impression from him Wordsworth William wrote his first significant work ("Walk"). It already identified the main creative principles of the author's poetic work: a combination of the description of nature and philosophical reasoning. One can say that this poem has become one of the most significant of his works. He worked a lot on it and in subsequent, mature years, reworking, forwarding and inserting new parts into it.
Wordsworth William after graduationdevoted himself to poetic creativity. However, the 1790s were a difficult time for him, as it was a period of frustration in the French revolution. In addition, he very painfully apprehended the fact that his country had begun a war against France. All these experiences led to depression, so his lyrics of this period are painted in gloomy colors. But fortunately, this did not last long, therefore very soon William Wordsworth, whose verses were still melancholy and despondent, met Coleridge, who was also a poet. This acquaintance literally grew into a strong friendship, which had a very fruitful significance for their cooperation, and first of all for the creative ascent of the author.
"The Great Decade"
This is how the period from 1797 in 1808 in the biography of the poet. Wordsworth William, whose works have now received a completely different sound, entered a period of creative growth. Friends conceived to undertake a trip to Germany and before the departure they decided to release a collection of poems that were supposed to demonstrate their views on contemporary literature. Coleridge was supposed to write ballads in exotic style, and his friend - sentimental and romantic lyrics. However, the first included in the collection of only about five works, the rest of it belonged to his co-author. The reason should be sought in the fact that Coleridge undertook to write ballads in the traditional English spirit, that is, on complex subjects and a serious syllable. While his friend's poems in English differed in ease and simplicity. His characters began to understandable and accessible to every speech, which was a principled innovation for that time.
This collection is also interesting becauseThe second edition in the preface Wordsworth made an introduction in which he outlined the rules that guided the writing of his poems. He stated that his lyrical ballads are based on stories and reality, which he perceived and described as he imagined. And life, nature and way of life were seen by the poet as a natural manifestation of the universe. Wordsworth stated that it is necessary to perceive and depict the surrounding reality in a simple, clear and colloquial language. He believed that there was nothing to complicate when creating a literary work, because the laws of nature are natural, they must be perceived directly, without superfluous wit. In this setting, the influence of Rousseau's ideas is guessed, which also sang the life of man in the bosom of nature and emphasized the artificiality of city life.
Verses in English Wordsworth differsimple composition, but their characteristic feature is the combination of an image of nature, emotional experiences with profound philosophical reasoning. This was new for English literature of the time. In addition, the author made the hero of his works a simple man: in the pages of his poems there are vagabonds, wanderers, beggars, vagabond merchants. This type of character was news for English literature, and not all immediately appreciated the find of the poet. Some time critics even criticized him for such innovations.
Another characteristic image in his poetry isa person who has suffered from social injustice. Wordsworth strongly condemned the war and wrote the drama "The Borderlanders," in which he portrayed all the horrors of victims and violence. And, finally, a great place in his creative heritage is the image of himself. The poet wrote his autobiography in a poetic form, which is called "Prelude." It is distinguished by an accurate depiction of human psychology and emotional experiences of the character, who carefully analyzed the way of his creative becoming as a poet. The image of the author is important for understanding the entire work of the poet in general.
The best examples of the author's lyrics arepoems about the nature and emotional experiences of a person. He was particularly sensitive to the depiction of nature. William Wordsworth, whose "Narcissus" is one of the best examples of his lyrical poetry, perfectly and perfectly felt the beauty of the surrounding world. In this poem, he sang the beauty of flowers, mountains in a very sonorous melodious form. This composition is distinguished by an unusual melodiousness and penetration.
Another of his famous works is called"On the Westminster Bridge". William Wordsworth recreated the panorama of London, but drew attention not so much to the urban landscape, but rather to natural phenomena. In general, the city as such is almost not present in the poet's works. It belongs wholly to the village, to the countryside and to nature.
The last two decades of the poet's lifewere marked by the gradual extinction of his poetic inspiration. In literary criticism, it is customary to distinguish between "early" and "late" Wordsworth. And if the first stage of his work was marked by a clear and harmonious worldview, then the late period is marked by a heavy mentality. This is largely due to the personal losses of the author: he was very hard to survive the death of his beloved sister, with whom he lived his whole life, as well as the death of his two children. In addition, he lost his brother, who drowned during one of the flights, as well as his friend Coleridge. Nevertheless, at this time he created a whole cycle of beautiful sonnets and elegiac works, which are imbued with sorrow, sorrow and anguish. These his later works have a greater philosophical load than the early works, in which the joyful admiration of the beauties of nature prevailed. The poet died in 1850 in the same county where he was born.
Importance of creativity
Poems of Wordsworth became a landmark inthe formation of English romanticism. In contemporary literary criticism, he, along with Coleridge, is referred to the older generation of romantics. Indicative is the fact that the poetry of the author was not immediately recognized. Only in the 1830s his merits in literature were rewarded. The public began to favorably favor his writings, and the queen granted him the title of poet laureate. He was known in Russia. Thus, in his famous Sonnet, Pushkin mentioned the name of the English poet as a prominent author.