Joseph Henri Roni Sr. - this is a pseudonym of a Belgian-French writer,who worked in the genre of science fiction and the prehistoric novel by Joseph Henri Böck. He also wrote under the pseudonym Enakrios. Roni Sr. is one of the founders of modern science fiction. His most famous work is the book La guerre du feu, translated from the French "Struggle for Fire", dedicated to the theme of the life of primitive society and the extraction of fire.
Childhood and the early years of Roni Sr.
Joseph-Henri Roni Sr. was born on February 17, 1856year in the city of Brussels in Belgium, in the family of Josef Boex and Irmin Tubiks. After growing up, he conducted various studies in Bordeaux (France) related to mathematics, physics, chemistry and other natural sciences. In 1874, he went to London to work in a telegraph company. There, in 1880, he married Gertrude Holmes. In 1883 he moved to his brother in Paris. In 1890 he was naturalized as a citizen of France, without renouncing his Belgian citizenship. In Paris, he began to correspond with and communicate with popular writers Edmond de Goncourt and Alphonse Dode. He actively participates in the Parisian literary life and collaborates with many magazines and begins his creative career as a writer. Roni wrote his works in his native French.
Creativity with my brother
Initially, he wrote together with his younger brother Serafin-Justin-Francois Boex, under the pseudonym J.-H. Roni. In 1886, they created their first novel, The Depths of Ciamo, under the influence of naturalism.
They create several prehistoricnovels. After 1908, the brothers split because of quarrels because of a lack of mutual understanding. The older brother adopted the pseudonym Ronny Sr., and the younger brother began to be published as Roni Jr..
Way to glory
In 1909, his famousprehistoric novel "The Struggle for Fire." The French author already had experience in creating works of this kind. If we talk about the brief content of the "Struggle for the Fire," it consists in describing the existence of our distant ancestors.
The novel acts in immemorialpast, and his heroes are primitive Neanderthals. The main idea of the "Struggle for the Fire" revolves around the topic of losing fire, wandering to get it. And as a whole, the processes of mastering fire by primitive people.
Summary of the "Struggle for the Fire"
The events described by the author in the novel carry us to tens of thousands of years ago, in the Stone Age, in the historical era when the primitive communal system flourished.
The action takes place in the Paleolithic era, approximately100,000 years ago. A small tribe of primitive people, Ulam leads a heavy, full of risks existence, living in a cave and supporting a fire that they themselves do not know how to extract. From generation to generation, the life of this tribe is full of adventure and anxiety. They wage a stern struggle against the forces of nature, with dangerous predators and hostile tribes, including clans of cruel cannibals.
Their entire life, from birth to death, takes place atfire and depends entirely on it - they are forced constantly, day and night, to maintain and maintain the flame, because the loss of fire means the death of a whole tribe. During the battle with the enemies, many ulmers die, and the fire was destroyed, he "died." The leader of the Faum tribe promises to marry his daughter Gammlu to the one who will receive fire for the tribe. A young and strong warrior Nao is summoned to fire. He decides to choose two other young, hardy warriors, Nama and Gava, into the satellites. They are confronted by another fellow tribe: the brutish Agu with his two brothers. Agu also aspires to take over Gammlu.
Thus, the main characters won the battle of Agu and his brothers, and they return fire to their native tribe and train clan members how to extract it independently.
Of course, the book is quite voluminous, it is only a brief summary. "The struggle for fire" has in its content three chapters.
The main characters of "Struggle for fire"
The main characters of the adventure novel are:
- Faum is the leader of the tribe and one of the main characters in the novel.
- Gamla is the daughter of Faum.
- Nao is the main character in love with Gamla.
- We are a companion of Nao.
- Gav is a companion of Nao.
- Agu, the son of Zubr - the oldest of the Zubr brothers.
- Roak, son of the Bison - brother Agu.
- Gong Dry Bones is the tribal elder.
- M-son of Tour.
- Goo is the son of the Tiger.
Genre of works by Roni Sr.
Ronny Sr. shares his own"Fantastic books" between science fiction (there was no such concept) and novels about the prehistoric past, such as "Vamireh" and "Struggle for Fire", which is considered the first real prehistoric novel.
The book "The Struggle for Fire" is the mostknown and popular representative of the genre of historical science fiction with elements of adventure. Josef-Henri Roni uses all sorts of artistic means to make the work of fascination. He combines the real facts of the prehistoric past of mankind with fictional heroes and events in their lives. In the future, many authors in the genre of fiction will rely on the works of Roni Sr. to write his own books.
The mastery of fire by man
Based on the summary of "Struggle for Fire,"we can conclude that the topic of mastering fire by primitive man is central to the novel. The extraction of fire by primitive people was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution. He became a source of heat, protection and a way of cooking. The development of fire provided an opportunity for the cultural achievements of mankind, and also provoked the geographical dispersion of people throughout the planet. In addition, it contributed to a change in the nutrition of the first people (people began to eat fried meat of animals and birds) and behavior. In addition, the production of fire allowed to expand human activity, since it allowed hunting and gathering in the dark.
Claims for the earliest finalevidence of fire development by a person vary from 1.7 to 0.2 million years BC. The evidence of the conscious use of fire by people, according to archaeologists, are more than half a million years old, and they have wide scientific support.
In the novel by Ronnie Sr. "The Struggle for Fire"The most ancient fauna of the planet is represented: mammoths, cave lion, cave bears, saber-toothed tigers, etc. In addition, it attempts to restore the way of life and traditions of a variety of primitive tribes, located at different stages of development (here probably we are talking about Cro-Magnon and Neanderthals). These descriptions are based on scientific research of scientists of the nineteenth century, but the further development of science has led to the fact that at present their reliability is low.
Other works by Roni Sr.
"Cave Lion "is also one of the famousworks of the famous French writer. It tells of two young Cro-Magnon people who, when studying caves and a lake in a dungeon after a weak earthquake, discover another part of an impenetrable mountain range. There they happen amazing and shocking events: a clash with other Cro-Magnon people, fighting with saber-toothed predators, and acquaintance with a dangerous cave lion. This book is essentially a continuation of the story La guerre du feu with a separate independent story.
Ronny Sr. also creates a series of other well-knownnovels. In his novel with the vampire theme "The Young Vampire" of 1911 describes vampirism as a consequence of hereditary genetic deviation. This idea Roni took from the writer Richard Mateson from the novel "I'm legendary." In 1925, in his work "Star-explorers" Ronnie Sr. was the first to introduce the term "astronaut", which later became widely used. We can say that this is one of the most prolific representatives of the fantasy-adventure genre.
In 1897 Roni Sr. was awarded the OrderChevalier of the Legion of Honor - one of the highest awards of France. In 1903, together with his brother, he was included in the first jury of the Goncourt Prize at the Academy. From 1926 to 1940. he was president of the Goncourt Academy. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926, 1928 and 1933. Josef-Henri Roni Sr. died on February 15, 1940 in Paris. In 1980, a French literary prize for French-speaking science fiction was created in his honor. And Ronnie Sr.'s novel The Struggle for Fire has been, for several decades now, a model of fantasy adventure.
The screen adaptation of the work
In 1981, the book "The Struggle for Fire" wasis filmed. In the eponymous film starring Everett McGill and Ron Perlman starred. Here, too, the plot unfolds during the Paleolithic era. The fire was extinguished, which was kept for a long time. Neanderthals, who are not yet able to extract it, must get it, because without fire, the life of the tribe is impossible. To conquer the heart of a beloved girl, the protagonist of the film decides to go on a far and very dangerous journey in order to obtain fire. Film critics gave positive feedback "The Struggle for Fire" (the film deserved recognition).