Magnificent Rome, not old with soul fora thousand-year history, beckons to all who yearn to touch eternity. A longevity among the cities will amaze with its splendor and will inspire a wonderful mix of ancient monuments and modern beauty. As the Romans say, life is not enough to get acquainted with all the sights of the charming capital of Italy.
The Mausoleum of Augustus is the oldest structure in the world
Today's story will go about the monumentthe greatest state of antiquity. Built by the mighty emperor, the tomb is one of the oldest structures in the world, and it is not possible to get inside it, as it is closed by the authorities for visits.
The huge mausoleum of Augustus in Ancient Rome appearedin the I century BC and throughout its history was subjected to various transformations until the moment when the government of the country decided to reconstruct an important monument for the descendants.
The decision to build a tomb
After the victory in the battles in Egypt, the emperorAugustus returned to Rome with a firm decision to build himself and his close mausoleum - the place of the last rest. It is believed that the golden sarcophagus of Alexander the Great in Alexandria made an indelible impression on him. In addition, according to the testimony of contemporaries, the ruler was not distinguished for strong health and early began to think about death. The official date for the beginning of the construction of the burial vault, located in the heart of the Champ de Mars, is 28 years before Christ.
Complex architectural work
The mausoleum of Augustus was in the form of Etruscanburial ground, that is, it was a conical structure. On the lower structure in the form of a cylinder with a diameter of 87 meters, there were five tiers. There was also a 44-meter high pillar on top of which there was a bronze sculpture of the emperor. The concrete base, lined with a light stone, was a veritable labyrinth consisting of communicating rooms and corridors. The passage led to the inner wall, in the niches of which were urns with the ashes of the emperor, his relatives and other figures of ancient Rome.
What else was inside the tomb?
On the south side, the only entrance was cut down,near which stood two stelae of red granite, brought from Egypt. Symbolized the victory of Augustus over Cleopatra and Antony, they were installed following the example of the tombs of the pharaohs, which distinguished from other structures of this kind the mausoleum of Augustus in Ancient Rome. Photographs of the obelisks currently located in Quirinale and Esquilino squares, which are important sights of the Italian capital, are surely made by all tourists admiring their modest beauty.
Bronze plates that appeared afterdeath of the ruler. They described the life path of the great politician and the feats committed by the emperor for his people. One can only admire the talent of ancient masters, painstakingly carved letters on metal.
At the base of the stone tomb was an earthen cone with planted evergreen cypresses.
A hint at unlimited power
Simultaneously resembling a modest mound anda magnificent tomb, the mausoleum of August was an incredibly complex architectural structure, consisting of five concentric walls, to the north of which was broken a beautiful park, where the Romans strolled. According to the researchers, even in the name of the monumental monument, a hint is given of the unlimited power of the ruler, with great respect for Alexander the Great.
Death of the great ruler
Curiously, but the mausoleum of Augustus in Rome beganfunction long before the death of the emperor. The first to find his eternal rest was his nephew Marcellus, then the ruler buried his beloved friend and companion Agrippa and sister Octavia. In the same place rested early grandchildren of a politician. In August of 14 AD at the age of 75 years, the founder of the Roman Empire in the city of Nola died. For several days the warriors mourning their ruler carried the corpse at night, so that the body did not decompose prematurely. The senators, for whom Augustus's departure was a huge blow, offered their variants of a funeral event, where all residents could say goodbye to the "father of the fatherland".
The funeral was held in a solemn atmosphere, and the body of the emperor was burned at the stake near the mausoleum, after which his ashes were installed in the center of the tomb.
The Legend of the Emperor's Last Desire
There is a beautiful legend about the latterthe desire of Augustus. The dying ruler ordered all residents arriving in Rome from other cities to bring with them a handful of native land and leave it on the tomb so that the memory of the emperor could live forever. For many years, the close connection of the monumental monument with the name of a successful politician has not been interrupted.
The fate of the mausoleum
Unfortunately, after the fall of the Roman EmpireThe majestic mausoleum of Augustus was plundered by the tribes of the Visigoths, who destroyed all the urns with ashes. In the Middle Ages, a noble Roman family turned him into a fortress that was destroyed after the expulsion of the dynasty from the city. For many years, wandering artists performed on the ruins, and they chose the burial place as a free site. Only in the 20s of the last century archeological excavations began, and the mausoleum of Augustus (Rome) was finally freed from the earth layers. Photos of the ruins and now transmit the amazing power of the structure, survived for centuries the history of glory and oblivion.
Today you can not get into the partially restored mausoleum, however you can admire the ancient burial vault of the emperor on the Piazza Augusto Imperatore square with the same name.