In this article we will talk about where it takestheir roots are the orthodox architecture of the churches, what it symbolizes and according to what principles it is built, and also about the importance given to different kinds of temples.
It can be said that from Byzantium came to Russiathe technology of how to build a cross-domed temple. It has its own distinctive features, since it must have a dome, which is located on four pillars, symbolizing the four directions of the world and the four evangelists. After the four major ones, twelve or more pillars, the intersections of which form the signs of the cross and divide the temple into zones, each of which has its own name and purpose.
According to studies of historians and religious scholars, the cross-domed church takes its architectural origin from the Roman catacombs.
In the catacombs in place of the dome has always been locateda source of natural light, he symbolized the light of God or Jesus Christ. Of course, the ground cross-domed church looks incomparably more majestic than the catacombs. But still some of the architectural similarities are preserved.
The development of construction technology in Russiaoriginally differs from Byzantine. After all, the main building material was a tree, from which churches with domes in the form of tents were often built, because it is difficult to make a traditional dome from wood. Even with time began to appear stone churches with domes in the form of tents. True, in the seventeenth century the construction of such temples was banned.
However, in Russia, and later in Russia, in spite ofwooden construction, was built not one completely corresponding to the Byzantine cross-domed church. Basically, these are white-stone, single-domed and five-cupola churches.
One of the distinctive principles was the greaternumber of domes. And if one-and five-dome temples were initially built, now they are much larger. The churches with one dome are dedicated to the unity of God and his creations.
The two-domed ones speak about the double creation of God, people and angels, and about the double nature of Jesus Christ (god and man).
Three-dome are used as a symbol of the trinity.
Four domed churches symbolize the four evangelists and the side of the world.
The five-field talk about the exaltation of Jesus Christ.
Semikupolny is the evidence of the seven sacraments and the seven virtues.
The temple with nine domes testifies to nine angelic ranks.
The temple with thirteen domes is a symbol of Jesus Christ and the twelve apostles.
Twenty-five domes of the temple speak of the prophecy of John the Theologian.
And the thirty-three domes testify to the full years of Jesus' life.
There is no other number of domes. But it is important to note that each element of the temple carries in itself some sacred meaning. From the time of Byzantium architecture has taken a long way. However, all Orthodox churches are still built according to the cross-dome principle.