As you know, temperament is innateproperty of the individual. Some of its manifestations can be corrected, others remain unchanged, thus the type of the nervous system becomes the determining factor for the formation of the personality. And the behavior of people around us in everyday life, the characters of films or literary characters is not so difficult to determine their types of temperament. Examples of representatives of each of the four varieties of higher nervous activity will be given in this article.
At the heart of the sanguine temperament is a mobile, strong,
In communication he is easy and pleasant: quickly converges with people, is responsive, easily finds points of contact with any interlocutor. The new situation does not lead him into confusion, but, on the contrary, tones up. Emotional sphere is characterized by positive attitude, good mood. The feelings of a sanguine person are usually not deep and not strong, they can quickly arise and change as quickly. This property helps you to experience failures more easily, which generally contributes to greater life success.
On these grounds, it can be assumed thatcertain personalities or characters of sanguine temperament. Examples in the literature: Steve Oblonsky ("Anna Karenina"), Sancho Panza ("Clever hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha"), Olga Larina ("Eugene Onegin"). In history, this temperament was owned by N. Bonaparte, AI Herzen, P. Beaumarchais.
This is the choleric temperament. Examples from history: the poet Pushkin AS, natural scientist Lomonosov MV, commander Suvorov AV, physiologist Pavlov IP
From literary characters: the old prince Bolkonsky (War and Peace), Nozdrev (Dead Souls), Grigory Melekhov (Quiet Flows the Don).
His feelings are constant, although they are not expressedopen, the mood is often calm, balanced. Speech is slow, quiet, movements are inexpressive, rare and weak. Phlegmatic patient, able to endure the blows of fate, does not show his experiences to others. In work is persistent, brings things to the end, loves order, changes his habits only in exceptional cases.
Phlegmaticians in history: I. Kant (philosopher), Charles Darwin (naturalist), IA Krylov (fabulist), G. Gallilei (physicist and philosopher), MI Kutuzov (commander).
Examples from the literature: Ilya Oblomov (Oblomov), Sobakevich (Dead Souls), Pierre Bezukhov (War and Peace).
It is based on a weak type of GNI, so the definition of temperament melancholic
The speech is quiet, but the facial expression is rather expressive, sheas if compensating for a low voice. Movement slowed, restrained, low-energy. Melancholik quickly tires, he does not have a great vitality, often in a depressed mood, laughs rarely. His feelings are deep and long, but experiences have little effect on appearance and behavior. The circle of acquaintances of such a person is limited, since he is closed and uncommunicative.
So you can describe the melancholic temperament. Examples in history: the writer Gogol NV, the poet Zhukovsky VA, the poet Nadson S. Ya., The artist Levitan II.
Among the literary characters it is worth noting Princess Mary Bolkonskaya ("War and Peace"), Podkolesin ("The Marriage"), Tatyana Larin ("Eugene Onegin").