People are all so different, but, as they say, goodword and cat nice. And those who know how to understand and feel other people's experiences, sometimes become a real outlet for those who need such participation. This ability is called empathy. And who is an empath from the point of view of different spheres of human activity?
I feel your experiences
Personal feelings and emotions - an integral partlife of each person. The ability to respond to the psychoemotional state of others is inherent in all people in varying degrees of intensity. This is how empathy is defined.
For some people, carried away by certainsciences or knowledge, an interesting answer to the question: "How do you understand that you are an empath?" The answer to it can be obtained by going through certain tests, which will be described below.
Such different empathy
If we consider empathy as a sphere of psychology, then we can see three main types of this state, distinguished by scientists:
- Emotional empathy rests on the ability to project and emulate the emotional responses of others to what is happening.
- Cognitive empathy is fundamentallyability to understand the train of thought of another person. Its basis - intellectual processes, such as analogy, comparison, opposition. This kind is useful in conducting discussions, disputes.
- Predictive empathy provides an opportunity to anticipate a person's reaction to ongoing events.
This division reflects empathy from all sides,but for a common man does not matter how to know the empath? Empathy and empathy - that's what most people expect from friends and family. In these two definitions, there is one more aspect of empathy. These forms are much closer to each person than the cognitive or predicative that many people do not understand. Empathy is the experience of the emotions of another person as the result of identifying oneself with it. Empathy is an aspect of socialization, the ability to feel the experiences of another.
The term "empathy"
About different terms used in narrowareas of knowledge, many have heard, but not everyone knows the designation of some of them. For most nonprofessionals, only the assumption and everyday understanding of the issue is characteristic. The same thing happens with the term "empathy". What is it in simple words?
The most precise definition was given by the concept of SigmundFreud: "To understand the mental state of the interlocutor, putting himself in his place, while comparing his and others' experiences." Here we can see the essential difference between reflexion and empathy. Empathy and compassion, but not immersing in the mental emotional state of the other - is the basis of empathy, while reflection is a complete dissolution in the experiences of the interlocutor, without the remnant of his self.
It is interesting that the term "empathy" itself was introduced by the Germanphilosopher Theodore Lipps back in 1885. Then, the founder of American experimental psychology, Edward Titchener, quashed it in his works. The term entrenched in the science of psychology, becoming one of the defining ways of telling about feelings in many spheres of life - from medicine to esotericism.
Science and art
Visiting psychology, esoteric, art, oftenyou can hear such a thing as "empathy". What is it in simple words? The ability to feel, respond to the emotions and feelings of the interlocutor, although for each area of human activity, the definition of empathy will be somewhat modified. So, in psychology as in the field of medical knowledge, empathy means understanding the emotional state of another person and demonstrating this understanding. For the psychologist (doctor, educator), an empathic hearing is important, giving the interviewee an opportunity to speak out frankly, without hiding their feelings and emotions.
Psychiatry and psychology define empathy asThe norm, which has different degrees of manifestation in different people - from complete indifference to full immersion. There is a line of "normal" condition and mental pathologies that require diagnosis and treatment.
Another area where the term is actively used"empath" - esoterics and art. Here is defined a person who has the ability of emotional telepathy, related to extrasensory perception. Whether such an ability is real, science has not yet been determined.
Levels of empathy
The answer to the question "Who is the empath?""is quite simple if one understands that empathy is the ability to respond to the feelings and experiences of another person, identifying oneself as a person.For science, empathy is divided into levels of intensity of its manifestation:
- the low (first) level is characterized by indifference to the experiences of others; they are hermitical people, closed in themselves, not having close friends;
- the middle (second) level is typical formost modern people - other people's feelings and emotions have no value in life, one can show empathy, which is the basis of empathy, but his own self for such personalities always remains in the foreground; for these people, the main thing is action, not feelings;
- high (third) level, fairly rare -people with this ability to perceive other people's feelings and emotions often can not identify their own state. They respond to any request without thinking about the consequences for themselves.
Also a separate group can be distinguished professional empaths - those who have learned to feel other people's experiences and manage them according to their needs.
How to identify the empath?
As professional psychologists say, the higherthe level of spiritual and intellectual development, the higher a person has the ability to empathy. It is not difficult to determine the features of the empath if we single out the main points characteristic of such a state:
- understanding of feelings and states of others at the level of intuition;
- the ability to experience the emotions of the interlocutor;
- the role of the "other" is given very easily;
- the ability to take someone else's view of events without evidence and discussion;
- the ability to see everything that is happening "not from its bell tower."
The different degree of expression of features characteristic of the empath is the basis of different levels of development of the ability to empathy in the individual.
Is it good or bad to be an empath?
The ability to feel other people's experiencesis characteristic of all people in varying degrees of intensity. Someone brightly reacts to what is happening around, someone is shut in the shell of their emotions. What are the empathies in the relationship? Is it good to be sensitive and communicate well with the empath? There is no unambiguous answer.
The only thing scientists say unequivocally,A high level of sensitivity to other people's emotions can cause mental disorders and phobias. The total lack of empathy makes a person an outcast, a recluse, unable to find those who want to get at least a drop of his attention. So the rule of the golden mean in empathy is very important.
Empathy is evident from early childhood,the absolute majority of children correlate themselves with their loved ones, primarily parents or those who are involved in the upbringing of the child. But the ability to feel other people's experiences with time can fade. For a person who consciously decides for himself the issue of empathy, several verification methods have been developed. A popular test for empathy is called the "Scale of the emotional response." There is such a self-test of 25 questions, each of which should be given one of four options:
This technique was developed by the American psychologist Albert Mehrabian (Albert Mehrabian) and has been actively used for half a century in self-knowledge.
Such personal checks are many, and getThe answer to the question "I empathize" test will help not one. For example, Boyko's questionnaire also reveals the level of personal empathy, but it is considered more simple - the answers "yes" and "no" to the 36 questions developed by the psychologist allow to determine the level of empathic predisposition.
Several exercises for the development of empathy
Adult people consciously set their own tasksand are looking for ways to solve them. For some, the ability to empathy is the step that will enable better understanding of others. To do this, you must first pass the test for empathy, to reveal the level of your own ability to feel other people's experiences, and then engage in self-learning on the development of empathy. These simple techniques, which are developed by psychologists, will allow them to learn to feel more closely the surrounding people, to serve as a support for psychological comfort, to be able to anticipate conflicts and to "quench" them in time.
- Ability to listen and hear the interlocutor will allow you to better understand the partner in conversation.
- The desire to understand others - what they think about, what they do in life, where they live.
- Conversations with strangers in transport, though serve as a sign of curiosity, but will allow you to learn to feel the thinness of other people.
- The ability to try on the role of another person,in a difficult situation: what steps would have to be taken to get the best solution to the problem; you can use the heroes of any psychological drama film.
- Self-determination in feelings and emotions is the basis of the empathy of the golden middle.
- The development of emotional memory - "there was this and that, it caused such and such feelings in me".
Such self-employment is supplemented by exercises withpartner or in a group. Children's fun "Monkey and the mirror" - this is quite an adult training for the development of empathy. Another simple but effective exercise is "Phone": you need to talk about gestures and gestures about an event so that the partners in the lesson understand what happened and what feelings it caused the narrator.
I do not need it!
The ability to empathize is one of the mainconstituents of empathy. But for many people, such sensitivity becomes a burden, there is a desire to remove acute sensitivity to other people's experiences from their own character. How to do it? Devote yourself more time, find a new hobby, an occupation that can carry away, taking a long time. But it should be remembered that the complete rejection of the ability to empathize and sympathize will be through loneliness, misunderstanding by others. It is necessary to be able to find the golden mean - human attention and own experiences.
Esoterics and empathy
Art and esoterics answer the question "Whosuch an empath? "in their own way: in these spheres, an empath is called a person who has the ability to immerse himself in the emotional background of other people at the level of extrasensory perception, often described in books and films, practicing psychics also use the empath's ability to work with parallels of reality. studies of the "skills" to immerse themselves in the emotional world of other people to obtain any information, but they were not given any confirmation, therefore, about empathy as part of esoteric abilities it is possible to speak conditionally.
Ability to sympathize and empathize, respondon the experiences of living beings is a distinguishing feature of man. Therefore, the question of who such an empath is, has a very wide range of answers, because each of the people is looking for someone who can understand it, respond to feelings. And the ability to empathy becomes the basis of relationships.