/ / Mnemonics - what is it? Essence, exercises for the development of memory

Mnemonics - what is it? Essence, exercises for the development of memory

Why, having a good memory, it is difficult for us to remember numbers, phone numbers and especially dates? This is fixable. Help mnemonotekhnika, which will be discussed in our article.

mnemonics what is it

Mnemonics - what is it?

Before we talk a little about the mnemonics.From Greek means "the art of remembering." This is a set of methodologies and rules that are aimed at improving memory performance. They help organize information coming into the brain, creating associative pictures.

Memorization of numbers and complex words occursby transforming them into some colorful images, thanks to this, the information is firmly fixed in our minds. Mnemonics, this is nothing more than the implementation of mnemonics in practice. This is a set of techniques that help to memorize large amounts of information.

Anyone can master mnemotechnics and in anyage. For this, you do not need to have super abilities and special knowledge. Everything will depend only on how much time you are willing to give it.

Types of mnemonics

Consider these:

  1. People's. Widespread mnemonics.This is not a specific system of memorization, it's some techniques that people use unconsciously. Indirectly we were taught to apply them in kindergarten and school. Of course, their effectiveness is low, has no scientific justification and strict system.
  2. Classical.It was used in ancient times for memorizing long oratorical speeches. The set of methods of this direction is small. The best example of classical mnemonics will be the method of "Cicero", which we shall consider below and "Hanger".
  3. Pedagogical.Unlike the classical one, it does not use visual thinking as a basis, so it became understandable and accessible to most people. Here emphasis is placed on natural memorization through the enhanced experience of the material being studied. This is nothing more than a multiple reading of texts, in other words, cramming, note-taking, drawing of book illustrations. A familiar learning process. In the 16th century, this mnemonics defeated the classical one. The methods of the first to the present day are used in the modern education system.
  4. Circus, or as it is also called "pop"mnemonics. Uses the principles of classical. A distinctive feature in the special encoding of information, which is encrypted everywhere in mimicry and in gestures, voice intonation. The main thing is not even the memorization, but the transfer of code from the assistant to the performer in different ways. It turns out that only a part of the means of mnemonics is used.
  5. Sports. It's about the competitions of the mnemonists. Compete on two criteria: the storage speed and the amount of information that is stored once.
  6. Modern mnemonics. It is supported by the availability of a theoretical basis. The existing methods are based on the theory and finalized and combined into a specific memorization system, which will be aimed at solving a particular problem. Let's say there are exercises for learning a foreign language. A clear example will be the method of "Giordano", allowing you to remember accurate, accurate information.

So, we briefly reviewed the types of mnemonics, we will start discussing the next question.

mnemonics for beggars

How does it work?

So, mnemotechnics - what is this? This is a memorization system. It is hard for us to keep in mind and reproduce figures, numerical series, word lists and so on, rather than logical, associative and other connections between these objects. It is for them to find information in memory. And if there are no such connected threads, they must be created. On what most of the techniques of mnemotechnics work.

How long can these encrypted objects be stored in our head? How much is required. The main thing is to periodically reproduce them.

Memory, like our body, requires a constanttraining. The brain must constantly work. The more it is loaded, the more efficient its performance. Mnemonics is known from ancient times. The ancient Greeks noticed a direct relationship of memory with the senses. It was believed that the more emotions a person receives in the process of life, the brighter will be his remembering. Therefore, when performing exercises for memorization, it is necessary to connect flash-associations.

Associations are the basis. Only by learning to recreate the correct and strong images in your head, you can move on. Illogical and strange associations contribute to better memorization.

mnemonics and ways of development

And how to create an association?

There are several rules:

  1. The resulting image will help to remember the information.
  2. The picture should be illogical, ridiculous and evenmeaningless. The more unordinary situation will arise in your head, the stronger it will crash into consciousness. If you can create a mental image of an object, it's a floor of success.
  3. Mnemonics for beginners will seem simple, if you learn how to recreate large, bright, with detailed drawing images. It is desirable to connect all your senses to this process.
  4. Let the association be funny, the first thing that could come to mind.
  5. Imagine yourself. For more effective memorization, bring the association into action.

For example, you need to remember two words: "Camel" and "sandbox". Imagine playing in the sandbox, sculpting kulichiki. And in the distance, near the swing, is a camel, chewing a thorn. And then he sat down beside him, exposing his huge legs to the sides to fit in a tiny sandbox. You look and think why the camel is here, I came to the sandbox to take away my son. What had he forgotten? Suddenly, the camel jumped and disappeared behind the bend, and the child ran after the giants in pursuit.

ways of mnemonics

Therefore, to keep our memory for a long timeThe received information, it is necessary to replace the dry facts with bright pictures. There are a lot of techniques for mnemotechnics, we will discuss in more detail some below, and so, each has a number of characteristics:

  • Innovation. The bottom line is that it does not matter which technique you choose and what complexity, the main thing is that the exercise is new, and, consequently, the benefit will be greater. The goal is to get out of the comfort zone.
  • Difficulty level. It is necessary to choose such trainings, on which it is necessary to make effort, to receive knowledge. For example, learn a new language.
  • Interest, without which you will not go far. And more, it is necessary to take tasks with an increasing level of complexity. It must be high, but not enough to reveal your inability.

The result can only be achieved through regulartraining. So, we briefly highlighted the question of what it is - mnemonics, talked a little about the techniques, to which we will return later. We'll figure out how to learn mnemotechnics.

Tips on how to achieve results

It does not matter whether it's mnemonics for beginners, oryou have already mastered certain basics, you need to know in order to develop a memorization system, it needs to be used more often. It's worth starting with simple tasks. If you need to learn how to memorize numbers, start with phone numbers, credit cards. Come up with long numerical series, say, the password for the account, and put the protection, and the memory will be trained.

If you want to store non-numeric information,you can use a book, not just fiction. Because, mnemonics - what is this? This is a set of methods and techniques that allow you to memorize large amounts of information. And the novel, as is known, contains a plot with a logical sequence of related events. The presence of these bonds makes it easy to assimilate the material. Let it be better physics, chemistry or geography.

And some more mnemonic techniques for beginners:

  1. Choice of method. It is important to choose the most appropriate and appropriate system for your type of thinking and perception.
  2. Selection of pictures and links. Some sources give unambiguous recommendations, for example, to present such and such objects, and what to do with them. But, each person has an individuality and transforms the received information into images, based on personal experience, using his associations. Therefore, do not stop and despair, these recommendations can serve as starting points.
  3. Reiteration. A good result can be achieved through numerous, regular training sessions. They need to be carried out every day or, at least, three times a week. Acquired experience should be consolidated, to bring the skill to automatism, so that at any time without difficulty they could be used. Repeat the various phrases. In memory, you need to show that the stored objects are relevant and important for you, get out of it the material that was put there long ago.
  4. Calm down. You need to exercise in complete silence. No, it can be done in the metro, but, most importantly, that you can concentrate and abstract from the outside world. At the initial stage of mastering some method, do not let the unintended emotions, anger, stress, and so on interfere with the process. Firstly, it will be difficult to understand if it suits you, and secondly, in subsequent work its use can be associated with these associations, which will hamper the memorization process.

Mnemotechnics are fascinating,first determine the purpose for which you need a developed memory: memorize figures (phone numbers, passwords), to learn a foreign language or jurisprudence.

When studying the methods of mnemonics for beginners,the main mistake becomes the illusion that after several training sessions, many consider themselves professionals. At the right time, the association does not work. This is all because there are few practical skills for remembering information for a long time. It seems that the connection between the images turned out to be correct, but it did not work. It is necessary to practice a lot and persistently, and the methods of mnemonics will step by step obey you.


And for what, in general, do you need mnemotechnics?

First, mnemonics is self-education. We not only learn to memorize large amounts of information, it improves the work of the brain, it, secondly, thereby improving our memory. And thirdly, the constant application of techniques will allow to include in work and use:

  1. Attention. As you know, memory and attention are closely interrelated. Tracking the links between pictures, replacing objects with images, trains attention and improves concentration over the actions performed.
  2. Creative thinking. Its development facilitates rapid analysis and decision making.
  3. Ability to visualize. The ability to draw images and associative pictures to them is a unique opportunity that helps to quickly memorize large amounts of information. And, in general, life changes for the better, you look at it with different eyes.
  4. Imagination, which mnemotechnics perfectly develops. You will notice how quickly you can find a solution, and your vision will be bright and non-standard, and it will seem difficult to others.

In general, mnemonics contributes to the fact that inwork includes both hemispheres of the brain, the left is responsible for the logic, the right for imagination. Usually people use only one hemisphere, the left one. Because they apply a logical approach to solving the problem, and connecting the right one, the brain's capabilities are used much more widely, making the thinking process more efficient.

how to learn mnemonics

Let's consider the basic techniques

They can be practiced every day and absolutely everything:

  1. The basic "Chain" method, for remembering a largenumber of objects. It's simple. Recommended for beginners in mnemonics. Let's say we need to remember the list of products for purchase. What we do, imagine a bright image and glue it mentally with another object, the same variegated, the same size. Then these images are linked together in pairs. When communication has formed, the first picture of consciousness is removed, shifting attention to the second. After that, there is a connection between the second and third and so on. When the chain is remembered, several images appear in the mind at once.

For example, you need to buy chicken, eggs and millet. Introducing a hen that hatches eggs. The chickens hatched and began to peck the millet. And so on, a whole tower of images is built. So you can remember up to hundreds of titles.

  1. Reception "Matrioshka". Here the images are connected in pairs. The first picture of the association is always larger and contains the second. Here, as in a doll, one picture is placed in another, while the small element appears to us large and connects with a part of a large object. When they are connected, attention is transferred to the smaller one, the other must disappear from the consciousness. Then we mentally increase it and attach the third. And so on. The images are embedded in each other. At the same time, only two images should be clearly drawn.
  2. Reception of "Symbolization". Used to memorize abstract concepts. Encoding an image, you need to ask yourself how you can imagine it. Let us assume that the cold is associated with ice, summer with emerald grass, spring with a bouquet of tulips, and autumn with yellow maple leaves.

The difference between the techniques of mnemotechnics from cramming is,that in the second case the information is remembered after reading and repeating several times. Here, remembering occurs immediately, and then, adhering to a certain algorithm, the information obtained must be repeated.

Now it is clear that mnemotechnics for the development of memory is an effective method. Thanks to it, the memory not only improves, but also increases the speed of reading, and information is quickly absorbed.

mnemonics step by step

What else exist mnemotechnics and ways of developing memory?

Let's talk about the method of "Cicero" for memorizationtext information. He was so named in honor of the great historical figure, philosopher, politician, excellent lawyer, great orator, who at the end of his life became consul. He made a great contribution to the development of European culture. He was declared an enemy of the state and executed, but forever remained a memory of him.

Mark Tullius Cicero had a unique memory,and was glorified, was an excellent speaker, and spoke all his speeches, not peeping at the sheet, reproduced dates, figures and a lot of facts and names. He only used the techniques of mnemonics, which was used in practice by the ancient Greek poet Simonides.

First, we determine how the method works

He has another name, "Roman Room". The point is that the images are attached to the familiar environment of the house, which arise in a certain sequence. Thanks to these associations, familiar interior objects easily attached to the memory were easily recalled, numbers, dates and names. This method is popular in mnemonics for beginners.

Principle of operation

This method of mnemotechnics is very interesting. There are certain rules for remembering:

  1. Interior of the room, office or allapartments are the matrix to which associations of objects are attached, which must be remembered. It is important to follow a certain sequence, for example, to move clockwise or on the right side, if you represent the path from home to work.
  2. Fixation of the matrix. It is necessary to walk mentally around the room several times to remember a clear arrangement of objects.
  3. Binding of information to certain objects of the matrix, for example, to the situation of a room or cabinet.

Then read the rules of memorization.


There are some features that make it easy to memorize using this method:

  1. Images should be attached to subjects that are well lit.
  2. The actual size of the object must be changed to the opposite, if the object is large, imagine it small and vice versa.
  3. A bunch of a familiar object with a new image must be bright and dynamic. You can use the action method or simply include an imaginary variegated coloring.

Here is an example of the method "Cicero"

As a starting point we will use the interior of the room: door, corner, window, mirror, sofa. Words to remember: an angel, a rat, a fire, an old man, an ax.

The association will look like this: I walk to the door, and I see a blinding angel. I open the door, and in the corner runs a huge rat. I cast a glance at the window, and it was engulfed in flames by fire. Then I see a mirror from which the old man looks at me. I go to the sofa, and start to beat him with an ax.

Mnemotechnics for the development of memory are popularadults and not only. It can be used by everyone, it is effective and easy to use. "The Roman Room" will teach you to easily remember information and reproduce it at any time, no worse than the notorious speaker.

And in conclusion I want to note that the approach toeverything needs to be done competently. There is a lot of literature with methods of memorizing, but in books mixed different, sometimes incompatible techniques. It turns out a kind of cheese, in which no system can be traced. Another problem is the complete absence of a theoretical justification for the methods used. Without theory, any practice will be ineffective. The terms "mnemonics" and "self-education" are identical, because, developing memory in many ways, we get a lot of new knowledge. And you need to constantly improve.