Intense pollution of the environment, massexploitation of natural resources, the introduction of technology and automation in all areas of human activities is accompanied by the emergence of man-made, biological and environmental hazards.
In the modern developing world, naturalenvironmental pollution factors have been multiplied by numerous harmful effects of human influence. To protect the population from the effects of these factors, collective protection equipment is used.
They help in many situations and in industriesproductive activity of people. The means of collective protection of the population are used to prevent or reduce the impact on the population of threatening and harmful production and natural processes.
The remedies are divided into the following types:
- safety - used to automatically turn off equipment and machines in the event of a deviation from natural work or when the person is at risk;
- brake - automatic, semi-automatic, manual and foot;
- protective - used to isolate from the working area of moving machines, the area of processing presses, machines, impact elements;
- Automatic control devices for measuring pressure, temperature, dynamic and static loads, which characterize the operation of equipment and machines;
- safety signs.
The most reliable way to protect from influencechemical or biological substances, from natural disasters, or in the case of the use of weapons of mass destruction, the use of protective shelters is considered. These include anti-radiation facilities, shelters and simple rooms.
Protective structures are classified according tolocation - built-in, basement, detached, built outside buildings; on the terms of construction - built in advance or built directly in the period of extraordinary events.
Proceeding from this, the means of protection are divided into three types:
The first is protective structures erected specifically for protection (anti-radiation shelters, civil defense shelters).
The second is structures adapted or refurbished for shelters and shelters (subways, tunnels, collectors, mine workings).
The third is the simplest shelter (pit, ravine, trench, dugout, niches).
The means of collective protection are divided into classes, depending on their purpose. Among the most common are:
- Devices regulating the air environment of industrial premises, workplaces.
- Lighting devices.
- Means of protection against high effects of ionizing, infrared, electromagnetic and ultraviolet radiation - sealing, enclosure.
- Means of protection from a high level of extraneous sounds, vibration and noise - silencers, vibro-isolating devices, fences.
- Ways of protection from the influence of mechanical, chemical and biological hazards - ventilation, warning signs, sealing.
The impact of production noise is one offactors for the use of collective protection. To prevent increased noise in the workplace, when operating equipment, use noise protection. These are soundproofing devices, sound-absorbing fences, silencers, remote control devices. They eliminate or reduce the noise level, weaken its effect, thereby protecting the production workers.
Collective protection is the main andthe most important way to prevent the negative impact of damaging mechanisms, emergency situations and the negative impact of harmful production factors.