The state, as a legal mechanism, hasa number of characteristics, among which the form of government is highlighted. This category implies the presence of two major sections - monarchies and republics.
The category "Republic", in turn, is dividedto the parliamentary, presidential and mixed. A mixed republic is an ambiguous form of government, the study of which requires special attention. And in order to understand what it is, it is necessary to consider its main features and species.
What is a mixed republic?
The Republic, as a form of government, is definedmediated by the power of the people of the country. This means that all the supreme bodies of state power (the Parliament and the President) are elected by the citizens of the country. However, depending on who forms the government, the type of the republic also depends. Among them is a mixed republic.
This category is most typical for the states of the transitional political regime, but it can also occur in countries with stable democratic traditions.
The most characteristic features of a mixed republic are:
- Election by direct popular vote of both the President and the Parliament.
- The legislative body and the head of state are endowed with almost equal powers in governing the country.
- The government gives a report to the parliament, but bears full responsibility for its actions to the President, who is actually the head of the executive body.
- The role of the Prime Minister is limited to the implementation of management orders from the president.
- The presence of a mechanism of "checks and balances", withwhich parliament has the right to dismiss the government, in turn, the elected head of state - in response to express a vote of no confidence and dissolve the legislature. Moreover, the government resigns only together with the prime minister, but not with the president.
- The Constitutional Court acts as the arbiter in relations between these two supreme bodies of state power.
Depending on how the powers of the president and parliament are distributed, there are two types of mixed republics - semi-presidential and semi-parliamentary.
The semi-presidential mixed republic, examples of classical functioningwhich serve as France and Poland, is based on the president's enhanced role in government. According to some authors, this species is most typical for countries where the role of the head of state as the leader of the nation is great and in which processes of transition from a parliamentary republic to a classical presidential one are noticeable. It should be noted that this form of government is inherent in the CIS countries, for example, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus, Ukraine.
Semi-Parliamentary Mixed Republic most characteristic of countries in whichprocesses of "promoting a strong parliament" and forming a parliamentary republic. In this case, the legislature is given a certain form of a vote of no confidence: the nomination of a vote to an individual minister (Uruguay) or the prime minister, indicating a possible successor (Germany).
Thus, the mixed republic representsa special transitional form of government characterized by a gradual strengthening of the parliament or the president. Sometimes this form of government is mistakenly attributed to mixed (or atypical) forms of government.
Mixed forms of government.
As noted earlier, the form of government has twoThe main species is the monarchy and the republic. However, the diversity of state formations and the historically developed manner of management distinguish a special form-mixed forms of government. They include monarchies with republican elements and republics with monarchical features.
The monarchy with the republican elements is of the following types:
- Elective monarchy - in this case the ruler is elected on the principle of rotation. An example is the United Arab Emirates and Malaysia.
- A constitutional monarchyin which the monarch inherits his power andis a representative of the state, and public authorities are elected by the people - for example, the United Kingdom, Japan, Sweden. However, the isolation of this type in the form of a mixed form of government is very controversial.
The republic with monarchical elements is represented by the following list:
- The super-presidential - The head of state de facto has the authority of the monarch in absolute monarchy. An example is North Korea
- Islamic Republic of - Elements of monarchism incarnate in disobeying the head of spiritual power to the will of the people. The most vivid example is Iran
Mixed republic, examples and characteristicswhich was presented above, is a special form of government of the country, allowing without special civil upheavals to move from one type of government to another. At the same time, the constitutional mechanisms operating in the state ensure legality and legitimacy of the transition.