Among the unpleasant phenomena of our time areemergencies. They can be of a different nature, and consequences depend on it. There are measures to protect and eliminate such situations.
The law has rules of conduct in the offenseES, as well as recommendations for their prevention. All enterprises, institutions, organizations have a duty to plan protection against adverse consequences.
The Ministry of Civil Defense includes a planactions to prevent and eliminate emergencies. The document outlines the scope, procedure, methods and time of implementation of measures to protect people from accidents and disasters. Rules of conduct in such situations will help to act in an organized manner.
Prevention of emergency situations involvescareful preparation for such events. It is important to choose the officials who will carry out this work. It is mandatory to organize meetings on the topic of emergency response.
In preparation, the forecasting technique is determinedaccidents. Natural ES are usually analyzed on the basis of long-term observations, statistics. You can get the necessary information from Roskomgidromet. For the work, members of the CoES of the facility are involved. For the preparation of the document, the following are involved:
- the main specialists of the facility;
- heads of departments;
- the chairman of the evacuation;
- chiefs of special services.
At the final stage, the document is approved and approved. It is created with a GOSS, whose boss signs the plan.
Types of emergency circumstances
The action plan for the prevention and elimination of emergencies is required to be used in the event of:
- natural Disasters;
- environmental disasters;
- military, political, social disasters.
Any of these situations have a devastating effect on people, as it disables the various spheres of life. After this, a fairly long recovery is required.
Features of Technogenic Disasters
Completely meet the needs of manit is very difficult, but for this conditions are created. Therefore, many enterprises are developing, which have a disastrous effect on the life and health of citizens. Technogenic emergency situations are represented in the form of accidents. This can be a breakdown of transport, transmission lines, communication structures, as well as damage to industrial equipment.
Adverse events include emissionschemical means, which cause great harm to man and nature. A disaster is considered larger than an accident. Dangerous are environmental technogenic emergency situations, in which changes in nature occur due to the activities of enterprises.
Principles of Elimination
Action plan for the prevention and liquidation of emergenciesincludes the performance of rescue and rescue operations necessary to save people, reduce the damage, localize the areas of danger. In such dangerous situations, the following activities are necessary:
- the choice of routes of movements and territories of work;
- localization of fires;
- suppression of negative factors;
- extraction of injured people;
- performance of medical assistance;
- sanitation of people.
Emergency rescue activities are performed in a short time. This is due to the need to provide prompt medical assistance to the victims, with a reduction in the number of damages.
Rules of protection from emergencies
In the action plan for the prevention and elimination of emergenciesincludes rules for protecting the population from such phenomena. They assume a consideration of possible dangers, natural and climatic conditions. Protection is provided through enterprises, institutions, organizations, where a threat has appeared. The necessary measures include:
- alerting the population of the threat;
- engineering protection;
- prevention of radiation and chemical threats;
- health care;
- training of people.
These are the main measures necessary to protect the population from hazards. Education rules of behavior in emergencies start in school. Competent behavior will avoid many unpleasant situations.
Shelters are necessary in peacetime and wartime forprotect people from danger. This reduces the threat to the population. The facilities allow the evacuation of a large number of people. Shelters are divided into:
- purpose: for property, equipment, people;
- constructions: open, closed.
To a reliable method of protecting the population areseekers. For some time people can be there safely. Inside, everything is equipped to preserve the life and health of people. With them, the population is protected from radiation, chemical accidents, smoke. The shelter can contain rescue and rescue units, places for food, collection of victims. Protective structures and the necessary rules allow to reduce the impact of negative consequences.