Emergency notification of the populationis a necessary security measure that allows to protect the inhabitants of any locality from the negative consequences of any accident or the destructive impact caused by the influence of various factors.
Such a scheme for the protection of citizens is extremely important for ensuring security.
What should be understood as an alert
This definition is used to describea set of measures that allow early warning of residents about possible emergency situations, as well as their consequences. For this, television and radio broadcasting, sirens and other information systems for citizens can be used.
At the same time, warning the population of the dangers,emergency situations and potential threats imply a certain reaction from the residents of the locality. As soon as the sirens sounded, it is necessary to turn on the radio or TV without delay to hear the appeal of the headquarters for civil defense affairs or local authorities.
This information will provide information about what is happening, what the extent of the damage and the expected consequences. Residents will also receive instructions on how to proceed.
Since the moment when the alarms soundedof the population about emergencies, care must be taken to ensure that the means of information are constantly included. Under similar circumstances, radio transmission nodes in populated areas exposed to danger are transferred to the operating mode during round-the-clock days.
Obtaining the necessary information on further actions is extremely important, since it will help to avoid significant damage and even save lives.
Most Common Emergencies
If you pay attention to statistics of emergencysituations, you can find that they all belong to one of the three key groups. We are talking about emergency situations of anthropogenic, ecological and natural character.
With regard to the consequences of emergencies, for the protection of which the means of warning the population of emergencies are used, then they can be reduced to the destruction of the following types:
One of the key signs of any defeat is its scale, for the characterization of which the definition of the zone of influence of a particular destructive factor is used.
Emergency notification of the population - the basis
So, the level of potential threat to the lives of citizens depends on the fact that this system of information about emergencies is correctly organized. Therefore, the key factor here is time.
It is for this reason that on the territory of the Russian Federation eachthe settlement is the repeater node. An interesting fact is that such a large retransmission network exists only in Russia. In order to create a comprehensive effect, regional, regional and republican television centers, local and broadcast radio stations have been established.
The system of warning of the population about emergencysituations, in addition to using the means described above, also implies the presence in the large production facilities and buildings of the corresponding sirens, through which it is possible to notify the population of the threat that has arisen.
In this case, directly the wail of the sirens from 1988year does not mean an airborne alarm, but the need to pay attention to emergency information. In other words, as soon as residents hear the sirens, they need to include all means of broadcasting - radio and television.
Use of voice information
In order to effectively respond to thevarious threats, headquarters of emergency situations and civil defense, together with authorities, form certain appeals, through which it will be possible to give concise and extremely relevant information to the population of those cities and regions that have been endangered. For this, various possible situations are initially modeled, for each of them a text is compiled.
For example, in the case of a chemical threat, the organization of alerting the public in emergency situations will include reporting to citizens the following information:
- warning about an accident at a particular enterprise;
- notification of the nature of the threat (the diversion of which substance occurred);
- designation of the direction in which a cloud of toxic fumes is moving;
- the enumeration of streets and areas of the settlement that fall into the contaminated zone;
- notification of the population about emergency situations of anthropogenic nature includes instructions for blocking windows and doors, as well as sealing the apartment;
- informing about the inadmissibility of staying in the basement and lower floors of the premises;
- notification of the residents of which districts and houses are forced to leave their apartments and workplaces;
- Then the final block of information on how to secure yourself (for example, wear gauze dressings moistened with a two percent solution of baking soda and water) will follow.
Such a procedure for alerting the public to emergencies should be designed for a 5-minute speech, repeated several times in a row.
If you have to deal, say, withflood, then residents will be warned about the threat of flooding and will name specific places of the city that are in the zone of destruction. After this, there will be information that it is necessary to transfer all supplies of provisions and necessary things to the top floor of the building or attic. Residents will also receive information about which direction to move in case of evacuation. The very need to leave the building will also be reported. Then the entire set of accompanying instructions will follow.
As you can see, regardless of the nature of the ES, the voice alert scheme remains approximately the same.
Recommendations for a radiation threat
If there was an accident at the nuclear power plant, then thesignal "radiation hazard". Such warning of the population about emergency situations, in particular, the risk of exposure, must be made in all settlements that may be in the way of movement of the cloud with radioactive elements.
Behind such a signal is a speech instruction aboutthe need for the use of a cotton-gauze or fabric dust-control dressing, and, if available, a respirator. If these remedies are not available, then you should use a gas mask. You will also need to prepare and bring with you individual medical protection, a stock of products and all items falling into the category of prime necessity. With this baggage it is important not just to move, but to move towards the nearest anti-radiation shelter. All these actions will be possible only if there is an organization of timely warning of the population in emergency situations.
Important nuances in organizing public awareness
First of all, it is necessary to provide translationall current information and recommendations with the help of available means of communication. But, in addition, you need to take care of that in a 5-minute appeal contained all the necessary information that will save the lives of citizens caught in the zone of defeat.
Notification and informing the population about emergency situations is also important for the reason that lack ofspecific data and the appropriate reaction of local authorities in the event of an emergency situation can create conditions for the emergence of panic sentiments. It is worth noting that the panic is potentially as dangerous as the threat itself.
Moreover, the information block should be understandable. That is, people, after hearing information and recommendations, should realize it without distortion and incorrect conclusions.
Alternative use of notification tools
There are a number of threats that do not fall into the categoryES. An example is military alarm. In this case, the same siren is used as in the case of emergencies, only in the message is the text about the threat of air or other intrusion with subsequent instructions. After attracting attention, any up-to-date information within the current situation can be announced.
Obviously, the current methods of warningof the population about emergencies have certain advantages and dignities. First of all, it is an opportunity to quickly attract the attention of people anywhere in the country. In addition, such a system is universal, since it can be used for any alerts, including in wartime. Another key advantage is the full and rapid informing of all residents who are at risk. And all this is possible thanks to the centralized warning systems, which are based on wire broadcasting, communication networks and special equipment with electric winches.
Local warning systems
Understanding how the population is informed about emergency situations, It is worth paying attention to these systems. They are necessary for promptly informing residents about accidents at chemically hazardous enterprises, nuclear power plants, hydrounits and various facilities where the risk of accidents is increased.
By means of local systems it is possible in shortthe timeframe to inform the personnel of the enterprise itself of the threat caused by the accident, as well as the management of all institutions and organizations that are in close proximity.
To alert the population in the zonePotential defeat, such information tools are also perfect. At the same time, the boundaries of such zones are fixed initially, which allows you to immediately determine the evacuation plan and the necessary strategy for protecting residents.
As a key advantage of localsystems, you can determine their apparent efficiency, which is very important in the event of accidents and disasters. As for the decision to launch this system, it is accepted by the dispatcher on duty. Initially, the sirens of a nearby housing estate and the facility itself are activated in particular. After a sound that attracts the attention of residents, the latest information sounds.
Such a system for alerting the population to emergencies should be included as soon as possible. Any delay in an emergency situation can lead to human casualties.
Who is responsible for the operation of the system
It is obvious that, in addition to the technical component,the human factor is important. The qualification and response of duty personnel directly depends on the fact how effective will be the organization of alerting the population in emergency situations under specific circumstances.
As for more global organizationalmoments, then they are already engaged in the chiefs of staff emergency and GO, and regardless of what they have rank. And the direct support of communication and its initial security should be handled by the chiefs of public alert services (objects of the economy, districts, cities, regions). Their duties include monitoring the condition of air and cable lines, as well as communication equipment.
The procedure for alerting the public about emergencies may include the final stage of organizing the protection of the population, namely, the removal of them from a dangerous territory.
Moreover, evacuation is one of the mainmeans of protecting residents in the event of an emergency. The essence of this complex of measures is that people migrate massively from districts and settlements where there is a risk of getting damage to health due to various types of threats (from emergencies to military incursions).
Especially relevant evacuation isIf the region lacks protective facilities to accommodate the right number of people. Under such conditions, only a quick and competent removal / withdrawal of residents to a safe area can help to avoid significant casualties.
It is not difficult to come to the conclusion that notification of the population about emergency situations is an important part of protecting the inhabitants of different regions from all the key types of threats that are the consequence of emergency situations.
For this reason, both the state of the equipment, as well as the organization of the process used for signaling, must be approached with the utmost responsibility.