Naval Forces are a specific speciesThe Armed Forces, which stands guard over the interests of Russia. They are in the readiness to defend the Motherland in the ocean and sea theaters of military operations. The fleet is ready to interact with the Land Forces during possible continental wars.
Flag of the Navy
The flag of the Russian Navy is a symbol of valor andfame. It has a glorious history. His appearance is associated with the name of Peter the Great, and the name - with the name of the Apostle Andrew the First-Called, who was destined to become the first disciple called Christ. In addition, it was this saint who, fulfilling the mission entrusted by God, came to the land of the future Russia, carrying faith to the peoples who inhabited it. Deep respect for Russians manifested itself in the confirmation of the St. Andrew's Order in 1696, adorned with the image of the glorious apostle who visited our land.
How was the flag created?Peter I, the great reformer of the army and navy, personally engaged in heraldry. He analyzed historical parallels, symbols. The main motif of the banner was an inclined cross (the Apostle Andrew, like Christ, was crucified on the cross for the faith). Therefore, for many generations of our sailors, the symbol depicted by Tsar Peter was associated with faith and the Fatherland. According to the naval tradition, the captain, accompanying the Russian sailors before the battle, always ended with the words that they are kept by God and St. Andrew's flag.
The fleet since 1992 has returned to itself a historical flag of the Russian Navy, thereby continuing the interrupted tradition. Under him, as before, the seamen carry out the responsible tasks of maintaining the country's defense capability.
The tasks of the fleet in peacetime
In peacetime, the potential of the fleet serves toDeterrence of possible aggression of a possible adversary in relation to the Russian Federation. There is continuous training and combat work. It would seem that the time is peaceful, but somewhere on its routes, missile-carrying submarines (RPSN) are continuously on alert. In strategically important areas, search, surveillance and escort of the RPLN, the carrier groups of the probable enemy are carried out. There is a counteraction to his intelligence, communications. A preliminary survey of the areas of possible military operations is being carried out.
The Russian Navy is ready to produceprotection of the coast, act jointly with the Ministry of Internal Affairs and internal troops in the event of civil conflicts, and in the aftermath of disasters - work together with the Ministry of Emergency Situations and civil defense.
Obviously, it is the Navyrepresent the best guarantee of the implementation of national economic activity in the World Ocean. They represent the RF in the vast water expanses, perform representative functions by order of the command by visiting the ships. The Russian Navy also fulfills interstate obligations by participating in peacekeeping operations that the world community has ratified, provided that it meets the interests of the country.
Fleet tasks in time of war
In wartime, the fleet is ready to actively defendthe sovereignty of the state on inland sea waters, in the space of the exclusive zone, as well as on the continental shelf. In addition, he also should, under military threats, carry out a specific "naval task" - to defend the freedom of the high seas. To perform the above tasks, during the time specified by the standards of combat work, it is transferred to the military state by rapid deployment. If there is an opportunity to localize the conflict or prevent it, protecting the navigation, this function is performed first.
In the active phase of combat operations, the Navy fleetRussia must hit remote enemy ground targets, ensure the combat mode of the RPLF operation, strike at the underwater and surface naval forces, protect the coastal defense of the enemy, defend the Russian coast, and interact with land front groupings of troops.
Composition of the Navy
Leadership of the navy is carried out by the Chiefcommand of the Navy. It refers to the management of its functional forces and means: surface and underwater, naval aviation, coastal troops, coastal artillery and missile, marine infantry.
Organizationally, the Russian Navy consists of the following operational-strategic associations: the Baltic, Northern, Pacific, Black Sea Fleet, and the Caspian Flotilla.
The length of this missile cruiser is 251.1m, the width is 28.5 m, the height from the level of the main plane of it is 59 m, displacement is 23.7 thousand tons. The giant "heart" of the giant is served by two nuclear reactors. Autonomy of navigation of the flagship of Russia is determined by the supply of food for the crew on board, which is enough for about 2 months. Technically, thanks to its reactors, the cruiser can swim unlimitedly - without calling at the port. The maximum speed of the ship is 31 knots.
The Northern Fleet is the most formidableoperational-strategic formation of the Russian Navy. The military missions that make up its power for warships for combat training are regularly placed. For example, the flagship of the fleet about once a year and a half, together with accompanying ships crosses the Atlantic Ocean, on his account participated in the international exercises "Vostok-2010", "Indra-2009".
The Baltic Fleet
Near the "window to Europe" is the service of the Baltic FleetThe Russian Navy. Its composition (ships) is now being intensively modernized and updated. The process takes place against the backdrop of building up the military might of the NATO countries in Europe. The Baltic fleet is planned to be strengthened due to the new frigates of the project 11 356 with eight cruise anti-ship missiles and anti-submarine rocket-torpedoes on board.
This operational-strategic formationis based in the Kaliningrad region (Baltiysk) and in the Leningrad region (Kronstadt). Functionally, it protects the Baltic economic zone, contributes to the safety of the passage of ships, fulfills the functions of foreign policy. This is the oldest Russian fleet. His story began with the victory over the Swedish ships on May 18, 1703. Today two destroyers - the "Restless" and the "Persevering" - form the basis of the combat power of the Baltic Navy of Russia.
Forms its combat potential brigade of dieselsubmarines, a division of surface ships, auxiliary ship formations, coastal troops, naval aviation. The flagship is the destroyer "Persevere". This year, the ship navigation systems (hydrometeorological complexes, cartographic systems, hydrocourse indicators, etc.) are updated, and the modernization of the Baltiysk harbor is planned.
Black Sea Fleet
After entering the Russian Empire of Crimea, in1783, with the Empress Catherine the Great, this fleet was created. Today it is based in the cities of Sevastopol and Novorossiysk. Since 18.03.2014 the main base of the Black Sea Fleet - Sevastopol - has become part of Russia.
25 thousand the man counts l / s of the Black Sea Navy of Russia. Its following forces and means are composed: diesel-type submarines, surface ships of the ocean-sea type, naval aviation (fighter, missile, anti-submarine). The main tasks of this fleet are to protect the Black Sea economic zone and ensure navigation. The flagship of the fleet is the Moscow missile cruiser.
At the current time, military observers reportthe formation of Black Sea naval coastal forces and artillery with radio technical support units equipped with S-300PM2 SAM complexes, Pantsir-C1. It is expected that the naval aviation of the fleet will be reinforced with MiG-29 and Su-27SM aircraft, Su-25SM attack aircraft. It is also planned to reinforce anti-submarine aircraft by supplementing the units with Il-38N aircraft, Ka-52K assault helicopters and Ka-29M and Ka-27 decks.
As reported in the press, at the airport inThe regiment of long-range bombers Tu-22M3 will be deployed in Guards. They will be able to tactically support the ships of the Russian Navy of the Mediterranean squadron. In parallel, the formation of the ground-based military unit of the peninsula is taking place.
This Russian fleet provides protection of interestsRussia in the Asia-Pacific region. It is based in Vladivostok, in Fokino, in the Small Ulysses. The basis of combat power is strategic underwater missile cruisers, nuclear and diesel submarines, ocean surface ships, naval aviation (fighter, missile, anti-submarine), coastal troops. The flagship of the fleet is the Varyag rocket cruiser.
This fleet performs an important strategicthe task of nuclear deterrence. Constantly on the routes of combat duty are nuclear submarines. Pacific ships of the Russian Navy carry out guaranteed protection of the regional economic zone.
The ships that are part of the Russian Navy
At first glance, it is difficult for a layman even to himselfto present the naval composition of the Russian Navy, but nevertheless, as it turned out, this information is freely available. This allows you to "grasp the immensity": in a convenient compact form, provide summary data on the fleets of a country occupying 1/5 of the land (see Table 1). Comment on the abbreviation allowed in the table: the fleet in it for compactness is indicated in capital letters.
Table 1. Naval composition of the Russian Navy as of early 2014.
|Missile submarines. cruiser strategist. appointments||10||4||14|
|Dispenser / electric submarine||8||2||8||2||20|
|Multipurpose nuclear submarines, armed torpedoes with cruise missiles||18||10||28|
|Atomic submarines of special purpose||8||8|
|Diesel submarines of special purpose||3||1||2||6|
|Total - submarine fleet||47||3||24||0||2||76|
|Heavy. nuclear missiles. cruisers||2||2||4|
|Heavy. aircraft carrying cruisers||1||1|
|The rocket. cruisers||1||1||1||3|
|The squadron. torpedo boats||3||2||4||9|
|Sentry distant ships||2||3||5|
|Large antishipers. ships||5||4||1||10|
|Sentry Melee Soldiers||3||2||5|
|Small rockets. ships||3||4||4||2||4||17|
|Small artillery. ships||4||4|
|Small anti-ice. ships||6||7||8||7||28|
|The rocket. boats||7||11||6||5||29|
|Large landing. ships||4||4||4||7||19|
|Landing. ships in the air. cushion.||2||2|
|Total - surface fleet||42||56||52||33||44||227|
Prospects for the development of the Russian Navy
We will analyze the prospects for the development of the fleet, based on an interview given by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, Admiral Viktor Viktorovich Chirkov.
The very logic of the development of the Navy as a complex, holistic organism, the admiral believes, does not accept hasty decisions.
Therefore, its development is planned as a strategic process until 2050. The goal of further progress is associated with increasing the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence of the enemy.
The plan provides that the Russian Navy will receive the newest ships in 3 stages:
- from 2012 to 2020;
- from 2021 to 2030;
- from 2031 to 2050.
At the first stage, the construction of submarine nuclear cruisers of the IV generation will be completed. The main carrier of ballistic weapons will be the RPLSN project 955A.
The second stage is marked by the replacement of existingRPLSN their analogues of the IV generation. It is also planned to create a ship-based strategic missile system for surface ships. At the same time, the development of submarine nuclear cruisers of the fifth generation will be launched.
In the third stage, it is proposed to deploy the construction of the V-generation nuclear cruisers that have been tested.
In addition to the principal increase of potentialcharacteristics of the Russian Navy, the newest ships - strategic underwater cruisers and RPLSN - will be characterized by increased secrecy, low noise, perfect communication, the use of robotics.
The tasks facing coastal forces
Recall that previously we have already been namedthe main bases of the Russian Navy for all its fleets. However, the planned development of the fleet for the period until 2050 will certainly affect the Coast Guard. What are the main points in it that Chirkov sees as the commander-in-chief? Considering the bases of the Russian Navy in the process of their further strategic development, Victor Viktorovich is betting on the completion of the creation of coastal missile systems, training and equipping the Marine Corps for tasks in the North.
Although the basis of the organizational structure of the Russian Navywill not change (4 fleets and 1 flotilla), in their framework will be created heterogeneous highly maneuverable strike forces. In the key of their creation, successful development of unmanned vehicles, artificial intelligence systems, marine robot systems, non-lethal weapons continues.
Summarizing the review of the Russian fleet,pay special attention to the prospect of its renewal by ships IV, and then the V generation. At the same time, the basis of the power of the Navy after the implementation of the plan will be the submarine nuclear cruiser V generation. The principal increase in combat power will be accompanied by the improvement of command and control systems, the integration of the forces of the Navy into inter-service groups of forces in possible theaters of military operations.
At the end of our modest presentation of the Russian Navy - a photo of its nuclear flagship, the missile cruiser Peter the Great.