In every country, regardless of its size,there are many laws. The law is a normative legal act that is adopted according to a special order. They can be taken only by the highest state body, most often called the parliament. However, there are cases when the adoption of any legislative act is submitted for general consideration - a referendum. In this case, accept it or not, the people will decide. In addition, these acts are the most powerful legal documents, the purpose of which is to settle the most important disputable relations in society.
Like any other document, the legislative act has its own characteristics, by which it can be distinguished from others.
- The first sign, as mentioned earlier, is that only a parliament or a nationwide referendum can approve such a document.
- The second sign of such an act is that its content is usually only normative.
- The process of adopting such documents has a special order.
- The last sign of the legislative act is that,that it is always executed in writing, and also in its content there are primary norms of law that are called upon to resolve conflicts in public and state life.
It is also worthwhile to elaborate on the fact that such a document has the highest legal force.
- First, the highest legal force is manifested in the fact that only parliament or a general referendum, that is, the people of the whole country, can accept or abolish it.
- Secondly, other regulatory legal acts should be written with an eye on the existing law.
- Third, if there is a conflict between the law and the sub-law, that is, a normative act, then first of all, the norms of the law.
Legislative acts of the Russian Federation,however, acts of other countries, most often unite in the system of legislation. The characteristic difference of the system is that it collects all the normative legal acts that have unity and consistency. That is, they are called upon to solve the same question, but each of the laws complements or clarifies the other. In addition, the systematization of legislation helps to classify legal material, which increases the convenience of its use at the right time.
It is also worth noting that to legislative actsThe Russian Federation refers to the totality of legal acts. This system is also designed to divide them into classes according to the scope, and also from the legal point of view. For example, the first group of such documents includes civil, family and labor law.
The federal system
Since the state of the Russian Federation is federal,he also has a federal system of legislation. This system can include such documents as the Constitution, international treaties in which the Russian Federation participates, as well as legal acts (laws). Legislative acts can also be applied to each individual constituent member of the Russian Federation. In addition to these acts, they can issue their own constitutions, as well as regulatory and legal acts. The full system of the legislation of the Russian Federation includes all normative acts of the federal level.
It is important to note that the orderinglegislative acts is objective. In addition, if we talk about the system of legislation, then most often its content is determined by the material, as well as the social status of society. From this it follows that the state issues any legal acts, proceeding from what tasks it is necessary to solve in order to improve the life of the social society. And this happens at every stage of the country's historical development. It is also worth noting that the system of legislation is designed not only to streamline the legislative acts of the Russian Federation, but also to create an organic system of laws. If we consider Russia, then the main direction of development of the legislative system is the issuance of regulations.
It is also important to understand that regulatoryActs are the basis of the entire legislative system. Legislative and normative acts, systematized and collected in the system of legislation, is the result of successful and high-quality work of the country's legal authority.
There is a division of laws into several types. This division is based on the importance of the content of the document itself. On this basis, constitutional and ordinary laws are distinguished.
To the first group, that is, to the constitutional,refer to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation, through which it is possible to amend the Constitution itself, as well as documents that enforce the same law. In addition, the Constitution itself belongs to this class.
To distinguish these laws from others can bethe nature of their adoption, as well as their content. The Constitution of any country is a document that has not only the highest legal force, but it is also a political one, and to some extent an ideological act.
If we talk about ordinary laws, then theircan be divided into two groups: coded and current. The first group includes systems of legislative and normative acts, which are adopted for the settlement of a whole area of public rules. All other laws are considered current.
the federal law
The federal law is also a legal normativeAct, but its difference lies in the fact that its publication and development is handled by the federal authority. Federal legislative acts are designed to regulate the most important economic, social and political aspects of society. If we talk about the legal force of such laws, then they stand immediately after the Constitution. In other words, this is the second act of the state in its legal force. It is such a prefix, as "federal", that the law is mandatory for execution in all the subjects of the country. If in any case the federal law and the law adopted by the subject of the Russian Federation will collide, then the federal has more legal force and should follow it. Exceptions are only those cases that are described in the Constitution of the Russian Federation in Part 6 of Article 76.
If we talk about the procedure for the adoption of the federallaw, it is regulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and the action itself is called a legislative process. The law comes into force only after it is submitted for consideration to both chambers, that is, to the State Duma and to the Federation Council, adopted by these bodies and signed, and then promulgated personally by the President of the Russian Federation.
Naturally, for a long period of the existence of the act it may be necessary to reconsider it and make changes. Amendments to legislative acts are:
- The process of replacing words or numbers.
- The process of removing words, numbers or whole sentences.
- The process of removing a structural unit, which never came into force, because the legislative act was also not adopted.
- The process of editing or creating a new structural unit of the legislative document.
- The process of completing this unit with new parts.
- Suspension of the operation of the legislative act as a whole or its structural unit.
- Extension of the term of the document or its unit.
Kinds of laws
In addition to the general classification of laws, which includes only constitutional and ordinary, there are several more types.
There are emergency laws that are adopted by the government in the event of such a need, that is, in an emergency situation.
There are also security or operationallaws. This category includes documents that can be used to introduce some other law into action. Also with their help, it is possible to ratify any international agreements. The purpose of such acts is not to create new norms, but to promptly confirm the existing ones.