For normal life to a personneed energy. He gets it with food and in the process of breathing. If we talk about civilization as a whole, then it needs energy for production needs. It is produced at large stations. Various sources are used for the production of energy. Many of them create global problems not only for the environment as a whole, but also for the health of the world's population in particular.
Types of power plants and the consequences of their work
Classification of these energy complexesis carried out depending on the sources that they use. So, there are thermal power plants. They work on organic fuels (natural gas, coal, oil). In the process of energy production, combustion products are formed that adversely affect the environment, polluting it. Hydroelectric power plants use water. Their work does not adversely affect the air. But the dams, built to supply them with raw materials, cover water flows, adversely affecting the fauna and flora of the area. Wind power plants use air flow. But they can also be catastrophe. For example, a wind generator may fall, causing damage to surrounding structures.
Accidents with release of hazardous substances
A major threat is industrialcomplexes that use chemical compounds in their work. The consequences of disasters at such stations are global. History knows many such cases. Accidents with chemical emissions pose a threat to humans, nature, flora and fauna. Large stocks of harmful compounds are found in oil refining, defense, pulp and paper industry. Accidents with chemical emissions can occur at metallurgical plants, trading bases, meat and dairy plants. A sufficiently large volume of harmful compounds is present at enterprises producing mineral fertilizers. At these plants, in case of malfunctions, an accident with ammonia emission may occur. This compound affects the human respiratory tract. The accident with the release of ammonia can lead to the death of people in the disaster zone. As a rule, compounds at industrial complexes are in gaseous or liquid form. The second is used more often.
In the production process, during storage,In transportation, normally the gaseous compounds are compressed and brought into a liquid state. This can significantly reduce their volume. However, the danger in this case does not decrease at all. A special threat to the population and the environment is represented by accidents with the release of biological substances. They can occur at complexes that manufacture vaccines, in storage facilities, laboratories. In case of release of biological substances into the environment, its infection occurs, which, in turn, entails a mass morbidity of people.
Accidents with release of toxic substances are subdivideddepending on the scale. So, allocate global, regional, local and object. All types of accidents with the release of AHOV are characterized by the formation of a corresponding zone of injury. The lower the concentration of compounds in the enterprise, the less the consequences. However, in any case, accidents with the release of chemicals will adversely affect the people involved in the industrial complex.
Accidents with emission of radiation
Examples of such disasters are well known.In Russia and in the world the largest of them is the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. It occurred in 1986, on April 26. On that day, one of the security systems was tested. During the work there were two explosions. As a result, the machine room and part of the reactor block were destroyed. From April 26 to May 10 - at the time of the final stoppage of the destroyed reactor - about 190 tons of radioactive substances were in the atmosphere. The greatest damage was done to Ukraine, Belarus and the west of Russia. The consequences of this accident with the release of radioactive substances have affected 20 states.
In 1975, on November 30, it became known about the accidentwith the release of RV at the Leningrad NPP. The cause of the disaster was the melting of fuel elements in the technological channels. As a consequence, the reactor core of the first power unit was partly destroyed. About 1.5 million Ki of radioactivity were emitted into the atmosphere. However, residents of nearby areas about the threat to their health were not warned.
There were accidents with radioactive emissions and forabroad. So, in 1952, on December 12, there was the world's first catastrophe of this kind. As a result of a technical error, overheating and partial melting of the core of the reactor occurred. A huge amount of compounds got into the atmosphere. In addition, about 3800 m3 contaminated water was poured into small trenchesnear the river. Ottawa. In 1966, an accident occurred in the United States at the nuclear power plant Enrico Fermi. The incident occurred due to partial melting of the core. The personnel of the complex managed to stop the reactor independently. In 1969, in France at the nuclear power plant "Sant Lauren" the operator made a mistake. As a result, about 50 kg of molten fuel got into the reactor body. A large number of radioactive substances were emitted into the atmosphere. The work of the reactor was stopped for a year.
A complex is recognized as a radiation hazardous object,on which a certain volume of radioactive substance is processed, stored, used or transported. When it is destroyed or another catastrophe within its limits, irradiation of people, plants and animals, the atmosphere and other natural elements can occur. Accidents with the release of radiation - a catastrophe, which is the result of violation of the rules of safe operation of the complex installation. During this emergency, the release products of decay or ionizing radiation occur within the prescribed limits in a volume exceeding the established norms. In case of an accident with the release of radioactive substances, it is necessary to stop the operation of the energy complex, equipment, devices containing harmful elements.
Accidents with release of radioactive substances can occur on:
- Atomic stations (NPP, ATEC).
- Objects with nuclear power installations (ship, military AE, space).
- Enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle of the radiochemical and uranium industry. To such objects also carry places of a burial place and processing of a waste.
- Warehouses with nuclear munitions.
Features of work with fuel
During the preparation, uranium dioxide is produced(powdery). It is pelletized, then fuel elements and assemblies are manufactured. Subsequently they are used by the reactor. Spent fuel can be sent for disposal. On some complexes, the waste is recycled and the necessary components are recovered. They can be partially (re) used. Fuel is processed at specialized plants. The burial is carried out in special concrete tanks in artificial or natural cavities.
Atomic stations are complexeswhich converts nuclear energy into thermal and electrical energy. The heat that is released in the reactor is used to produce steam, through which the turbine generator rotates, as well as partial heating of the coolant. The ASs are equipped with steam turbines, an output system for generated heat and power, pipelines, nuclear power plants. Today, Russia uses two types of nuclear reactors. In the first - water-water - as a retarder of neurons and coolant is water. In channel reactor plants of high power, graphite is additionally used. It acts as a retarder of neurons. Accidents with emissions of radioactive substances can occur due to:
- Violations of technological rules by the employees of the complex, shortcomings in their professional training.
- Low demands and lack of attentionon the part of departments, ministries, institutions, enterprises and other legal entities and officials responsible for ensuring and maintaining safety at facilities during the design, construction and subsequent operation.
These facilities with nuclear facilities are equipped with liquid-metal and light-water type reactors. Their principal differences from AC units are:
- The use of highly enriched uranium as fuel.
- Relatively small dimensions.
- High level of protection.
The reasons for accidents involving the release of radioactive substances at these facilities are the depressurization of the first reactor circuit and the penetration of water under protection.
VAES and space NES
At military nuclear power plants, nitrin is used. It is a fire and chemically hazardous substance. Causes of catastrophes at the VAPS may be depressurization of the first reactor circuit and mechanical damage. Space nuclear power plants are small in size. Small dimensions are achieved through the use of highly purified fuels containing plutonium-238 and strontium-90 in high concentrations. The reasons for accidents involving the release of radioactive substances at these facilities are abnormal situations and unauthorized access to projected capacity during a fall or impact.
Explosive devices and nuclear munitions are storedin peacetime in specialized warehouses. They are there in a state of readiness for delivery and application. Some of them are used in combat duty. Most often there are accidents in the collision of transport with nuclear weapons, fire in the assembly shop, storage, complex, as well as under the influence of lightning discharges.
Enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle
On the nuclear fuel cycle complexes, as a rule, accidents occur of the following types:
- Ignition of radioactive materials and combustible elements.
- Exceeding the critical mass level of fissile compounds.
- Leaks and ruptures in storage tanks.
- Accidents with finished products.
Enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle performwork on the extraction of uranium ore, its enrichment. These complexes also produce fuel elements for NED, processing of radioactive waste, as well as storage and their final placement. All enterprises are divided into three categories:
- Radiochemical plants.
- Complexes of uranium industry.
- Areas for the burial of radioactive substances.
The complexes of the uranium industry areThe objects on which ore is mined by mine or open method, as well as its subsequent processing. This category also includes enterprises that clean the material on special crushers and enrich it using the gas diffusion method.
The actions of the population in the event of an alert signal
In the event of an accident with the release of radioactive substancesIf there is no instruction in the message, you must protect yourself from exposure. To do this, whenever possible, use the time-keeping means (gas mask, respirator) as soon as possible, and in their absence - with a handkerchief, bandage, scarf and so on. It is necessary to take shelter in the nearest building or own apartment. Outer clothing and shoes should be placed in a film or bag, close windows and doors, as well as ventilation holes. Be sure to turn on the TV, radio and wait for reports of further action. In the room should be away from windows. The necessary measures are taken to seal the apartment. For this purpose, all the cracks are embedded in the tools. Open products should be placed in bags or a film, put in a refrigerator or a cabinet with doors. The apartment must have a supply of water. It is collected in containers with tightly twisting lids. When receiving recommendations on the media, it is necessary to carry out prophylaxis with an iodine preparation (potassium iodide, for example). If they are not, you can use 5% of its solution (3-5 drops per 250 ml for adults and 1-2 for 100 ml for children). After 6-7 hours, the reception should be repeated. It should be remembered that iodine preparations are not recommended for pregnant women. All products that withstand water, while eating and during cooking should be washed.
When you receive a message, collect allnecessary things. These are documents, medicines, money, products, means of protection, assistants including. The weight and dimensions of backpacks and bags must be such that one person can easily carry them. When preparing for evacuation, you must listen carefully to the messages. They will give recommendations on when and how to use protective equipment. In case of receipt of the evacuation signal before leaving the apartment, it is necessary to remove the products from the refrigerator, to dispose of perishable substances, to disconnect all appliances (gas, electric). In addition, it is necessary to prepare a sign, where it will be written "In the quarter No. of ___ tenants there". Leaving the room, it is hung on the door. While on the street, you need to protect the respiratory system and skin. You need to move quietly, without raising dust. Do not put bags and backpacks right on the ground, you can use a newspaper or polyethylene. Without the need not to sit down and touch the objects, do not walk through the bushes and grass. During the movement on the contaminated site is prohibited to smoke, eat and drink.
Living in a contaminated area
After the evacuation return to the villageit is possible only with the permission of competent services. Depending on the capacity of the accident and the volume of discarded substances, the radiation background on the ground is determined. When living in a territory where the degree of pollution is higher than the norms, but below the life-threatening limits, a special behavior regime is established. Along with this, preventive measures are taken to prevent the penetration of harmful compounds into the body of people with water and products. The area of immediate residence should be moistened in case of a hard coating. If it is not, then the grass is mowed out, the upper soil soot is removed. This area is also moistened.
When working on household plotsUse fabric dust masks, bandages or respirators. Must be a spare set of protective clothing and shoes, headgear. To reduce the contamination of radioactive substances in the soil, potassium, lime and other fertilizers, as well as peat, are applied. All grown products undergo special control. Do not eat fish and other aquatic animals in the contaminated area. Collection of berries, mushrooms, herbs, as well as subsequent harvesting work is carried out exclusively with the permission of the local authorities based on the results of the radiation monitoring.
In the event of a health hazardAccidents with emissions of radiation are reported to the public by the civil defense and emergency authorities. Some information can be obtained from the housing department and other authorized organizations, educational institutions, managers and employees of various enterprises in advance. In particular, it is necessary to find out the location of the anti-radiation shelter, organizations where protection will be issued in the event of an accident. You should also know the address of the evacuation, the medical center (nearest), telephone numbers of officials authorized to conduct evacuation and other activities in emergency situations.
Given the danger of radioactive objects,it is necessary to develop effective measures to prevent accidents, improve the professional level of the employees of the AU. In these events, all authorized bodies should be involved. Great responsibility for ensuring security lies with the government.