One of the most common types of cancer -melanoma. It is this disease that is often fatal. Therefore, it is important for every person to know his symptoms and how to prevent it. So, what is melanoma? Most often it develops on the skin of a person, degenerates from moles, less often affects the retina of the eyes, intestines and vagina. The main danger in metastases, which by the circulatory and lymphatic system rapidly spread to all internal organs. This greatly complicates the treatment.
Before we consider the main featuresmelanoma, it is useful to know the main causes of its occurrence. The first risk factor is a dysplastic nevus or, more simply, moles. The more their number, the higher the risk of developing melanoma. They can be hereditary. If one of the relatives had cancer, then the whole family is at risk. The most common signs of melanoma appear in adolescence or senile age. It is during these period that the body is sensitive to hormonal changes. How many birthmarks can be considered critical? Doctors believe that more than 50.
Often signs of melanoma appeara certain type of appearance. So, if a person has white skin, light or red hair and blue eyes, he has a high risk of developing skin cancer. The thing is that this appearance is most likely to be affected by ultraviolet radiation. The skin burns - and freckles are formed. This type of cancer most often gives a relapse. It can also appear as a result of weakening immunity as a result of taking AIDS drugs or after organ transplantation.
So, it is clear what melanoma is. Its signs may be different. Most often it appears on the lower limbs, face, neck, back. It starts with the appearance of the nevus. But not every birthmark leads to melanoma. That is why you should not neglect the advice of an oncologist. When is it worth worrying? If the nevus changed color or shape, increased in size, began to bleed, next to it appeared pigmented spots - this may be signs of melanoma. In this case, it is important to see a doctor as soon as possible and take all the tests. Even if it really is skin cancer, the sooner the treatment starts, the better.
There are several methods of treating melanoma. Everything depends on the stage of the disease. The surgical method is most often used. The doctor cuts out the swelling and a small patch of skin next to it. Its size depends on many factors. If lymph nodes are affected, they are also removed. If you plan to remove a large amount of skin, then use the donor.
Chemotherapy for melanoma is rarely used. Drugs are taken by courses. It is important to alternate periods of treatment and recovery. In the fourth stage, it is more effective to use radiation therapy. It allows you to kill a part of cancer cells and facilitate treatment.