Prolactin is the hormone responsible for lactation,which is produced and regulated by the pituitary gland. Prolactin has a direct effect on the course of pregnancy. Under the action of this hormone, the colostrum is synthesized, and then milk is produced. The amount of milk in a woman depends on the level of prolactin in the blood. Using prolactin, the breast develops, and this hormone is a natural contraceptive. When the hormone prolactin in women is elevated, this condition is called hyperprolactinemia. About this disease may indicate a violation of the menstrual cycle.
If prolactin is elevated in women, the reasons can be as follows:
physical and emotional stress;
long neck massage;
tumors of various kinds;
diseases of the endocrine system;
disruption of the liver and kidneys;
taking medications: estrogens, amphetamines, tricyclic antidepressants, oral contraceptives and a number of others.
The causes of increased prolactin in women can beestablish by conducting a diagnostic examination. Blood for prolactin can be taken on any day of the cycle. Two days before the test, it is recommended to give up sweet, sex, breast examination, physical activity. Since the level of the hormone rises during sleep, the tests should be taken no sooner than 2 hours after awakening, and on an empty stomach. This will help to establish more precisely the causes of increased prolactin in women.
Symptoms of hyperprolactinaemia:
absence of ovulation and, consequently, infertility. Also, miscarriages are possible in the first weeks of pregnancy.
irregular or complete absence of menstruation;
galactorrhea - discharge of milk from the breast;
increased hair growth on the face, abdomen, around the nipples;
decreased sexual desire, lack of orgasm;
dysfunction of the thyroid gland;
weight gain, since the hormone prolactin increases appetite;
deterioration of vision, memory, sleep disturbance, depressive state;
osteoporosis. Increasing the hormone prolactin promotes the elution of calcium from bone tissue, which leads to brittle bones.
Treatment of hyperprolactinemia
Treatment consists in normalizing the concentrationthe hormone prolactin in the blood. Physiological increase of the hormone does not need special treatment. As soon as the causes of increased prolactin in women are eliminated, the amount of the hormone stabilizes. If the examination showed that the cause of hyperprolactinemia is pathological, then treatment is assigned individually. It can be both drug therapy, and surgical intervention.
The causes of increased prolactin in women canbe obvious, or may need additional examination. Therefore, in time to detect a possible disease and successfully implement its treatment, you must regularly visit your doctor and take all the necessary tests.