Third place among all oncologydiseases occupies skin cancer. This pathology is characterized by the presence of premalignant conditions (diseases) such as: Paget's disease, pigment xeroderma, Keira's erythroplasia, Bowen's disease, as well as such senile changes as senile keratomas, atrophies, keratoacanthomas.
Often, skin cancer develops after traumatic and burn scars, lupus and trophic ulcers and syphilitic gum.
In addition, the etiological factor of educationCancer can be the impact of occupational hazards (exposure to radiation, as well as contact with oil, coal and various chemical products).
Such a hereditary disease, like pigmentary xeroderm, is associated with reduced reparative ability of DNA, which is caused by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation.
A certain danger with respect to the development of cancerthe skin is intensely pigmented, flat, with fuzzy contours, nevi. The diameter of the latter, as a rule, is more than six millimeters. A certain risk is represented by pigmented formations with signs of activity (enlargement, pruritus, tingling, burning, change in pigmentation), the same group includes giant dysplastic blue nevuses.
Depending on the histological characteristics, the following types of skin cancer are distinguished: basal cell, squamous, adrenal cancer, melanoma.
The bulk of all cancers of the skin is taken directly by the cancer itself and melanoma (account for about ninety-six percent of all skin cancers).
How is skin cancer manifested?Ploskokletochny manifests hyperkeratosis and, alternating with its atrophy of the skin. With atrophy, the skin looks shiny and later ulcerates. The cutaneous pattern disappears. At the base of the tumor palpation of the seal.
Skin cancer is manifested by cylindrically raisededges, telangiectasias and ulcers on the surface. Subsequently, the destruction of blood and lymphatic vessels, develops moknut, bleeding, there is hyperemia.
As a result of the destruction of the appendages of the skin -hair follicles, possibly lack of hair follicles. Melanoma is characterized by characteristic chaotic pigmentation and chaotically located regions of regression.
Developed metastases manifest common to all cancers as symptoms of intoxication.
For the purpose of diagnosis, the scarificationtest (scalpel scraping the surface of the tumor) and smears-prints (for ulcerated areas). In addition, as a diagnostic option, a total biopsy is used.
Treatment of skin cancer is divided into surgical and combined. The latter includes radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
In the initial stages, combined and surgical treatment is used. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy, used in the generalized stage, are ineffective.
Prevention of skin cancer is to protect againstnegative effects of ultraviolet radiation. For the purpose of prophylaxis, removal of malignant skin formations is performed with further morphological examination of the skin.
Thus, skin cancer is not only a common pathology at present, but also quite dangerous in terms of development of metastasis and dermal complications.
Due to severe symptoms, detection(diagnosis) of skin cancer is not difficult. In this connection, it is rarely possible to find forms in the late stages with metastasis. Identification of melanoma in the early stages determines the qualitative and full treatment of this disease and a favorable prognosis in the future.